Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Nutrition, Metabolism, and Temperature Regulation Deck (47)
A substance in food that is used to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair
is the major nutrient, 60% comes from food
Almost all are derived from plants. Glucose is the major one, we use it for body fuel. Used to make ATP, mostly needed in the brain and RBC's. Need 125-175g lately.
Sourced from plants and animals, most abundant are the neutral fats.
Uses of Lipids
Phospholipids -cell membrane components
Triglycerides -energy source for hepatocytes and muscle
Adipose tissue-protection, insulation, and energy source
Lecithin -used to build the plasma membrane
Cholesterol -Not an energy source, but builds bile salts and steroids
For high quality proteins, animals are the best source for essential amino acids. Used for structural components, production of enzymes, production of hormones, production of plasma proteins and antibodies.
Organic compound needed for growth and good health. Never used for energy. Without vitamins, proteins, fats, and carbs would be completely useless. Most are coenzymes or a component of a coenzyme. Vitamins K, B, and D may be produced in the body.
Important in retinal function, deficiency leads to night blindness
Deficiency can lead to Rickets in children
Excess can lead to thrombopoiesis
Deficiency can lead to prolonged clotting
Deficiency leads to scurvy
Deficiency leads to beri-beri
Deficiency leads to dermititis
Deficiency leads to pernicious anemia
Deficiency leads to pellagra
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E, K
Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins C, B1, B2, B12, and niacin
A reaction where larger molecules are built from smaller ones. Ex: Amino acids being builts into proteins
The breaking down of complex structures to simpler structures. Ex: Food being broken down by hydrolysis
Stages of Metabolism
- Digestion in the gastrointestinal tract
- Nutrients are transported by the blood to the cell
- In the mitochondria, O2 makes a complete breakdown of food
- The electron transport chain
-Oxidation: when oxygen is gained or H, or e-, is lost
-Reduction: when oxygen is lost or H, or e-, are gained
FAD and NAD
Ten chemical steps where glucose is converted into 2 pyruvic acid molecules. It occurs in the cytoplams, is anaerobic, and results in 2 ATP per glucose molecule
The aerobic pathway, occurs in the mitochondria. 2 pyruvic acid molecules are converted into acetyl CoA. It's then oxidized, decarboxylated yielding 6 CO2, 8 NADH, H+, 2 FADH2, and 2ATP.
e- Transport Chain
Coenzymes deliver H+ to redox acceptors, H2 is split into H+ and e-. H+ and ATP synthase uses the energy to produce ATP. O2 is the terminal e- acceptor. ETC doesn't make ATP directly, it generates a proton gradient across the membrane which uses the energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP.
Net ATP Production
Glycolysis = 2 ATP net
Krebs Cycle = 2 ATP net
ETC = 32 or 34 ATP
Total 36 or 38 ATP per glucose molecule.
Glucose catabolism being inhibited by high amounts of ATP. Glucose is then converted to glycogen. The liver and skeletal muscle will synthesize and store glycogen.
When glycogen is broken down into glucose