Chapter 24 - Nutrition, Metabolism, and Temperature Regulation Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology 2 > Chapter 24 - Nutrition, Metabolism, and Temperature Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Nutrition, Metabolism, and Temperature Regulation Deck (47)
Loading flashcards...
1

Nutrient

A substance in food that is used to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair

2

H2O

is the major nutrient, 60% comes from food

3

Carbohydrates

Almost all are derived from plants. Glucose is the major one, we use it for body fuel. Used to make ATP, mostly needed in the brain and RBC's. Need 125-175g lately.

4

Lipids

Sourced from plants and animals, most abundant are the neutral fats.

5

Uses of Lipids

Phospholipids -cell membrane components
Triglycerides -energy source for hepatocytes and muscle
Adipose tissue-protection, insulation, and energy source
Lecithin -used to build the plasma membrane
Cholesterol -Not an energy source, but builds bile salts and steroids

6

Proteins

For high quality proteins, animals are the best source for essential amino acids. Used for structural components, production of enzymes, production of hormones, production of plasma proteins and antibodies.

7

Vitamins

Organic compound needed for growth and good health. Never used for energy. Without vitamins, proteins, fats, and carbs would be completely useless. Most are coenzymes or a component of a coenzyme. Vitamins K, B, and D may be produced in the body.

8

Effects of:
Vitamin A

Important in retinal function, deficiency leads to night blindness

9

Effects of:
Vitamin D

Deficiency can lead to Rickets in children

10

Effects of:
Vitamin E

Excess can lead to thrombopoiesis

11

Effects of:
Vitamin K

Deficiency can lead to prolonged clotting

12

Effects of:
Vitamin C

Deficiency leads to scurvy

13

Effects of:
Vitamin B1

Deficiency leads to beri-beri

14

Effects of:
Vitamin B2

Deficiency leads to dermititis

15

Effects of:
Vitamin B12

Deficiency leads to pernicious anemia

16

Effects of:
Niacin

Deficiency leads to pellagra

17

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Vitamins A, D, E, K

18

Water Soluble Vitamins

Vitamins C, B1, B2, B12, and niacin

19

Anabolism

A reaction where larger molecules are built from smaller ones. Ex: Amino acids being builts into proteins

20

Catabolism

The breaking down of complex structures to simpler structures. Ex: Food being broken down by hydrolysis

21

Stages of Metabolism

- Digestion in the gastrointestinal tract
- Nutrients are transported by the blood to the cell
- In the mitochondria, O2 makes a complete breakdown of food
- The electron transport chain

22

Redox Reactions

-Oxidation: when oxygen is gained or H, or e-, is lost
-Reduction: when oxygen is lost or H, or e-, are gained

23

H+ Acceptors

FAD and NAD

24

Glycolysis

Ten chemical steps where glucose is converted into 2 pyruvic acid molecules. It occurs in the cytoplams, is anaerobic, and results in 2 ATP per glucose molecule

25

Kreb's Cycle

The aerobic pathway, occurs in the mitochondria. 2 pyruvic acid molecules are converted into acetyl CoA. It's then oxidized, decarboxylated yielding 6 CO2, 8 NADH, H+, 2 FADH2, and 2ATP.

26

e- Transport Chain

Coenzymes deliver H+ to redox acceptors, H2 is split into H+ and e-. H+ and ATP synthase uses the energy to produce ATP. O2 is the terminal e- acceptor. ETC doesn't make ATP directly, it generates a proton gradient across the membrane which uses the energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP.

27

Net ATP Production

Glycolysis = 2 ATP net
Krebs Cycle = 2 ATP net
ETC = 32 or 34 ATP
Total 36 or 38 ATP per glucose molecule.

28

Glycogenesis

Glucose catabolism being inhibited by high amounts of ATP. Glucose is then converted to glycogen. The liver and skeletal muscle will synthesize and store glycogen.

29

Glycogenolysis

When glycogen is broken down into glucose

30

Gluconeogenesis

The formation of sugar from non-carbohydrate molecules, occurs in the liver when blood glucose levels drop.