Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Breast Deck (152):
Estrogen leads to what part of breast development?
Duct (double layer of columnar cells)
Progesterone leads to what part of breast development?
Prolactin has what effect on breast development?
Synergizes esterogen and progesterone
Estrogen causes what cyclic change in the breast?
Increased breast swelling, growth of glandular tissue
Progesterone causes what cyclic change in the breast?
Increased maturation of glandular tissue; withdrawal causes menses
What cyclic change is caused by LH, FHS surge?
Causes ovum release
Long thoracic nerve innervates what? Injury results in what?
Serratus anterior; winged scapula
Thoracodorsal nerve innervates what? Injury causes what?
Latissimus dorsi; weak arm pull-ups and adduction
What artery goes to the serratus anterior?
Lateral thoracic artery
What artery goes to latissimus dorsi?
Medial pectoral nerve innervates what?
Pectoralis major and minor
Lateral pectoral nerve innervates what?
Pectoralis major only
Intercostobrachial nerve comes from where? Innervates what?
From lateral cutaneous branch of the 2nd intercostal nerve; sensation to medial arm and axilla
Branches of what arteries supply the breast?
Internal thoracic artery, intercostal arteries, thoracoacromial artery, lateral tthoracic artery
Batson's plexus allows what to happen in breast cancer?
Valveless vein plexus that allows direct hematogenous mets to spine
What does primary axillary adenopathy indicate?
Positive supraclavicular nodes indicate what stage disease?
Most common bacteria in breast abscess?
S. aureus, strep; associated with breast feeding
Treatment for abscesses?
I&D, d/c breast feeding; ice, heat, pump, antibiotics
Most common bacteria in infectious mastitis?
S. aureus; in nonlactating women can be due to chronic inflammatory diseases (actinomyces, TB, syphilis)
Workup for infectious mastitis?
Need to rule out necrotic cancer; incisional biopsy including skin
What is periductal mastitis?
Mammary duct ectasia or plasma cell mastitis; dilated mammary ducts, inspissated secretions, marked periductal inflammation
Symptoms of periductal mastitis?
Noncyclical mastodynia, nipple retraction, creamy discharge from nipple; can have sterile subareolar abscess; pts with difficulty breast feeding
Treatment for periductal mastitis?
Reassure if discharge is creamy, non bloody and not associated with nipple retraction; otherwise r/o cancer
What is a galactocele?
Breast cysts filled with milk; occurs with breast feeding
Treatment for galactocele?
Aspiration to I&D
What is galactorrhea caused by?
High prolactin (pituitary prolactinoma), OCPs, TCAs, phenothiazines, metoclopramide, alpha-methyl dopa, reserpine
What is gynecomastia? Caused by?
2cm pinch (ouch); cimetidine, spironolactone, marijuana, idiopathic
What is the cause of neonatal breast enlargement?
Due to circulating maternal estrogens; will regress
Most common location for accessory breast tissue?
What is the most common breast abnormality?
What is Poland's syndrome?
Hypoplasia of chest wall, amastia, hypoplastic shoulder, no pectoralis muscle
Workup for mastodynia?
Pain in breast; rarely represents breast CA; H&P and bilateral mammogram
Treatment for mastodynia?
Danazol, OCPs, NSAIDs, evening primrose oil, bromocriptine
What is cyclic mastodynia most commonly caused by?
What is continuous mastodynia caused by?
Most commonly acute or subacute infection
What is Mondor's disease?
Superficial vein thrombophlebitis of breast; cordlike, can be painful
What is Mondor's associated with? Treatment?
Trauma and strenuous exercise; NSAIDs
Symptoms of fibrocystic disease?
Breast pain, nipple discharge (uncommon, yellow to brown), masses, lumpy breast tissue that varies with hormonal cycle
How can sclerosing adenosis present?
Cluster of calcifications on mammogram without mass or pain
How is sclerosing adenosis differentiated from breast CA?
By regularity of nuclei and absence of mitoses
Risk factors for benign breast disease?
Early menarche, late menopause, small breast size, normal or low body weight, h/o cyclic breast discomfort, irregular menses, h/o spontaneous abortions, postmenopausal status
Most common cause of bloody discharge from nipple?
Malignancy risk with intraductal papilloma?
Treatment of intraductal papilloma?
Resection (subareolar resection curative)
What is the most common breast lesion in adolescents and young women?
Characteristics of fibroadenoma?
Painless, slow growing, well cicumscribed, firm and rubbery; change size in pregnancy; grows to several cm in size then stop
Pathology of fibroadenoma? Mammography findings?
Prominent fibrous tissue compressing epithelial cells; popcorn lesions (large, coarse calcifications)
Work up of nipple discharge?
H&P, bilateral mammogram
What is green discharge due to? What is the treatment?
Fibrocystic disease; if cyclical and nonspontaneous, reassure patient
What is bloody discharge due to? Treatment?
Most commonly intraductal papilloma, occasionally ductal CA; galactogram and excision of that ductal area
What is serous discharge due to? Treatment?
Worrisome for cancer; excisional biopsy of that ductal area
What is spontaneous discharge due to? Treatment?
Worrisome for cancer no matter what color or consistency; biopsy in area of duct
What is nonspontaneous discharge due to? Treatment
Pressure, tight garments, exercise; not as worrisome, however still need biopsy
Characteristics of diffuse papillomatosis? Risk of cancer?
Multiple ducts of both breasts, larger when solitary, serous discharge; increased risk of cancer (40%)
Mammogram findings of diffuse papillomatosis?
Swiss cheese appearance
Definition of ductal carcinoma in situ?
Malignant cells of ductal epithelium without invasion of the basement membrane
% risk of cancer with DCIS?
50-60% get cancer if not resected; 5-10% will get cancer in contralateral breast
Mammogram findings with DICS?
Usually not palpable; cluster of calcifications on mammography
Margins needed with excision of DCIS?
Patterns of DCIS?
Solid, cribriform, papillary, comedo
What is the most aggressive subtype of DCIS?
Comedo pattern; with necrotic areas; high risk fro multicentricity, microinvasion, recurrence
What characteristics increase the recurrence risk following excision of DCIS?
Comedo type, lesions >2.5cm
Treatment for DCIS?
Lumpectomy and XRT, ?tamoxifen; simple mastectomy if high grade, if large tumor not amenable to lumpectomy or not able to et good margins; NO ALND
Cancer risk with lobular carcinoma in situ?
40% get cancer (either breast)
Is LCIS premalignant?
NO, considered a marker for the development of breast CA; do NOT need negative margins
What type of breast CA do patients with LCIS develop?
More likely to develop ductal CA (70%)
% risk of having synchronous breast CA at the time of diagnosis of LCIS?
Treatment for LCIS?
Nothing, tamoxifen, bilateral subutaneous mastectomy (NO ALND)
What country has the lowest rate of breast cancer worldwide?
Lifetime risk of breast cancer?
1 in 8 women (12%); 4-5% in women with no risk factors
What % will screening decrease mortality of breast cancer by?
Median survival of untreated breast cancer?
Clinical features of breast CA?
Distortion of normal breast architecture, skin/nipple distortion or retraction, hard, tethered, indistinct borders
Workup for symptomatic breast mass in pt <30y?
US: if solid - FNA; excisional biopsy if FNA is nondiagnostic
Workup of symptomatic breast mass in patient 30-50y?
Bilateral mammograms and FNA; excisional biopsy if FNA nondiagnostic
Workup of symptomatic breast mass in pt >50y?
Bilateral mammograms and excisional or core needle biopsy
Workup for cyst?
If fluid bloody: cyst excisional biopsy; clear and recurs, cyst excisional biopsy; complex, cyst excisional biopsy
What is the sensitivity/specificity of mammography?
90%; sensitivity increases with age as the dense parenchymal tissue is replaced with fat
Size of tumor that is able to be detected by mammography?
General screening guidelines?
Mammogram Q2-3y after 40y, yearly after 50y; high risk screening: 10y prior to youngest age of diagnosis of breast CA in 1st degree relative
What are the node levels of the breast?
I: lateral to pec minor, II: beneath pec minor, III: medial to pec minor; Rotter's nodes - between the pec major and minor
What level node needs to be sampled?
What is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer?
Nodal status; also tumor size, grade, progesterone/estrogen receptor status
5 year survival is 0 positive nodes?
% of nonpalpable nodes that are positive at surgery?
5 year survival if 1-3 nodes are positive?
5 year survival if 4-10 nodes are positive?
What is the most common location of distant mets?
What characteristics of tumor have increased multicentricity?
Central and subareolar tumors
T staging for breast cancer?
T1: 5cm, T4: skin or chest wall involvement, peau du'orange, inflammatory cancer
N staging for breast cancer?
N1: ipsilateral axillary nodes, N2: fixed ipsilateral axiallary nodes, N3: ipsilateral internal mammary nodes
Factors that will greatly increase breast cancer risk?
BRCA gene, >2 primary relatives with bilateral or premenopausal breast CA, DCIS and LCIS, fibrocystic disease with atypical hyperplasia
Factors that will moderately increase risk of breast cancer?
FH of breast cancer, early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, radiation, previous breast CA, environmental risk factor (high-fat diet, obesity)
How much does a 1st degree relative with bilateral, premenopausal breast cancer increase breast cancer risk?
Other cancers associated with BRCA I?
Ovarian (50%), endometrial CA; consider TAH, bilateral oophrectomies
Other cancers associated with BRCA II?
Male breast cancer
Requisites for prophylactic mastectomy?
FH + BRCA gene, LCIS, plus one of the following: anxiety, poor access to follow up exams, difficult lesion to follow, patient preference
Receptor positive tumors lead to what prognosis?
Better response to hormones, chemo, surgery, and better overall prognosis
Which receptor-positive tumors have best prognosis?
Progesterone > estrogen; both positive with best prognosis
What % of breast cancers are negative for both receptors?
What type of cancer do males usually have?
Male breast cancer is associated with what?
Steroid use, previous XRT, FH, Klinefelter's syndrome, prolonged hyperestrogenic state
Treatment of male breast cancer?
Modified radical mastectomy
What % of breast CAs are ductal?
What are the subtypes of ductal CA?
Medullary, tubular, mucinous, scirrhotic
Characteristics of medullary breast CA?
Smooth borders, high lymphocytes, ductal type cancer with bizarre cells; majority E+/P+, more favorable prognosis
Characteristics of tubular CA?
Small tubule formations, nodes + in 10%, more favorable prognosis
Characteristics of mucinous CA?
Colloid, produces an abundance of mucin, more favorable prognosis
Characteristics of scirrhotic CA?
Treatment for ductal CA?
MRM or lumpectomy with ALND (or SNLB); post op XRT
What % of breast cancers are lobular?
Characteristics of lobular CA?
Does not form calcifications, infiltrative, inc. bilateral, multifocal and multicentric
Lobular cancer with signet ring cells have what prognosis?
Treatment for lobular CA?
MRM or lumpectomy with ALND (or SLNB); postop XRT
Treatment for inflammatory cancer?
May need chemo and XRT 1st, then mastectomy
Stage of inflammatory cancer?
Median survival of inflammatory cancer?
Very aggressive; 36mo
What causes the peau d'orange lymphedema of inflammatory cancer?
Dermal lymphatic invasion; erythematous and warm
Preoperative studies needed before breast surgery?
CXR, bilateral mammorgrams, CBC, LFTs; abdominal CT if LFTs elevated; head CT if headaches; bone scan if bone pain or inc. alk phos
Subcutaneous (simple) mastectomy indications?
DCIS, LCIS; NOT indicated for breast CA; leaves 1-2% of breast tissue, preserves teh nipple
Margins necessary with simple mastectomy?
1cm; with SLNB
Indications for SLNB?
Malignant tumors >1cm; NOT indicated for pts with clincallly positive nodes
Complications of lymphazurin blue?
Type I hypersensitivity reactions
What next if no SLN found during SLND?
The sentinal node is found in what % of the time?
Contraindications to SNLB?
Pregnancy, multicenteric disease, neoadjuvant, clinically positive nodes, prior axillary surgery, inflammatory or locally adcanced disease
Modified radical mastectomy includes what?
All breast tissue including the nipple areolar complex; axillary node dissection (level I)
Radical mastectomy includes what?
MRM and overlyting skin, pectoralis major and minor, level I, II, III lymph nodes
Complications of axillary lymph node dissection?
Infection, lymphedema, lymphangiosarcoma, axillary vein thrombosis, lympatic fibrosis, intercostal brachiocutaneous nerve injury
Signs of axillary vein thrombosis?
Sudden, early, postop swelling
Most commonly injured nerve after mastecomy?
Intercostal brachiocutaneous nerve; hypersthesia of inner arm and lateral chest wall
Radiotherapy dose for breast cancer?
5000 rad for lumpectomy and XRT
Complications of XRT?
Edema, erythema, rib fractures, pneumonitis, ulceration, sarcoma, contralateral breast CA
Contraindications of XRT?
Scleroderma, previous XRT, SLE, active RA
What is the chance of recurrence following lumpectomy with XRT?
10%; usually within first 2 years
Treatment with local recurrence?
Which patients get chemo?
Positive nodes (except postmenopausal women with positive estrogen receptors (tamoxifen), >1cm and negative nodes
By what percent does tamoxifen decrease short-term risk of breast cancer by?
What is the risk of blood clots on tamoxifen?
What is the risk of endometrial cancer in patients that are on tamoxifen?
What are the symptoms of a metastatic flare? What is the treatment?
Pain, swelling, erythema in metastatic areas; XRT
What is occult breast cancer?
Breast-cancer that presents as axillary metastases with unknown primary
What percent of occult breast-cancer are found to have breast cancer at mastectomy?
What are benign conditions that mimic breast cancer?
Radial scar, fibromatosis, granular cell tumors, fat necrosis
Which malignant tumors have a benign appearance; smooth rounded masses?
Mucinous cancer, medullary cancer, cystosarcoma phyllodes
How does Paget's disease present? What is the treatment?
Presents with scaly skin lesion on nipple; biopsy shows Paget's cells. Need modified radical mastectomy if cancer present, otherwise simple mastectomy
What percent of cystosarcoma phyllodes are malignant? How is the diagnosis made?
10%; based on mitoses per high-power field, resemble giant fibroadenoma, has stromal and epithelial elements
What is the treatment for cystosarcoma phyllodes?
Wide local excision with negative margins, no ALND
What is Stuart-Treves syndrome?
Lymphangiosarcoma from chronic lymphedema following axillary dissection, presents with dark purple nodule on the arm 5 to 10 years after surgery
What is the prognosis for a mass that presents during pregnancy?
Worse prognosis because it tends to present late