Chapter 28 – G.I. Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 28 – G.I. Hormones Deck (38):
1

Where is gastrin produced?

G sells in antrum

2

Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by what? Inhibited by what?

Stimulated by amino acids, vagal input, calcium, EtOH, antral distention, pH greater than 3

3

Target cells of gastrin? Response?

Parietal cells and chief cells; increased HCl, intrinsic factor, pepsinogen secretion

4

Mechanism of action of omeprazole?

Blocks H/K ATPase of parietal cell

5

Where is somatostatin produced?

D cells in antrum

6

Secretion of somatostatin is simulated by what?

By acid in duodenum

7

Target cells of somatostatin? Response?

Many - the great inhibitor; inhibits gastrin, HCl release, inhibits release of insulin, glucagon, secretin, GIP, motilin, neurotensin, enteroglucagon; decreases pancreatic and biliary output

8

What is octreotide? What is it used for?

Somatostatin analog, can be used to decrease pancreatic fistula output

9

Gastric inhibitory peptide is made where?

K cells in duodenum

10

Secretion of GIP stimulated by what?

Amino acids, glucose, long chain fatty acids, decreased pH

11

Target cells of GIP? Response?

Parietal cells of stomach and data cells the pancreas, decreased HCL secretion and pepsin, increase insulin release

12

CCK is produced where?

Produced by I cells of duodenum and jejunum

13

Secretion of CCK stimulated by what?

Secretion stimulated by amino acids, fatty acid chains

14

Response of CCK?

Gallbladder contraction, relaxation of sphincter Oddi, increased pancreatic enzyme secretion, some increase in intestinal motility

15

Secretin is produced where?

S cells of duodenum

16

Secretion of secretin is stimulated by what? Inhibited by what?

Stimulated by fat, bile, pH less than 4; inhibited by pH greater than four, gastrin

17

Response to secretin?

Increased pancreatic HCO3-, increased bile flow, inhibit gastrin release (this is reversed in patients with gastrinoma), inhibit HCl release

18

High pancreatic duct output shows what electrolyte response?

Increased HCO3-, decreased CL-

19

Slow pancreatic duct output shows what electrolyte response?

Increased CL, decreased HCO3-; carbonic anhydrase in duct exchanges HCO3- for CL

20

Where is vasoactive intestinal peptide produced?

Produced by cells in gut and pancreas

21

Secretion of VIP stimulated by what?

Fat, acetylcholine

22

Response to VIP?

Increased intestinal secretion and motility, inhibits gastrin release

23

Insulin is produced where?

Beta cells of pancreas

24

Secretion of insulin stimulated by what? Inhibited by what?

Stimulated by glucose, glucagon's, CCK; inhibited by somatostatin, pancreatostatin

25

Response to insulin?

Cellular glucose uptake; promotes protein synthesis

26

Where is glucagon produced?

Alpha cells of pancreas, also from alpha cells stomach, intestines

27

Secretion of glucagon stimulated by what? Inhibited by what?

Stimulated by decreased glucose, increased amino acids, acetylcholine, gastrin releasing peptide; inhibited by increased glucose, increased insulin, somatostatin

28

Response to glucagon?

Glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, ketogenesis, decreased gastric acid secretion, decreased pancreatic secretions, decreased intestinal motility, decreased stomach motility, increased LES pressure, decreased MMCs

29

Pancreatic polypeptide produced where?

Islet cells in pancreas

30

Secretion of pancreatic polypeptide stimulated by what?

Food, vagal stimulation, other GI hormones

31

Response to pancreatic polypeptide?

Decreased pancreatic and gallbladder secretion

32

Motilin is produced where?

Intestinal cells of gut

33

Secretion of motilin stimulated by what? Inhibited by what?

Stimulated by duodenal acid, food, vagal input, gastrin releasing peptide; inhibited by somatostatin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, duodenal fat

34

Bombesin is otherwise known as what? Response?

Gastrin releasing peptide; increased intestinal motor activity, increased pancreatic enzyme secretion, increased gastric acid secretion

35

Where is peptide YY produced?

Terminal ileum following fatty meal

36

Response to peptide YY?

Inhibits acid secretion and stomach contraction; inhibits gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion

37

Anorexia is mediated by what?

Hypothalamus

38

What is the recovery time for small bowel? Stomach? Large bowel?

Small bowel – 24 hours, stomach – 48 hours, large bowel - 3-5 days