Chapter 24- Pituitary Flashcards Preview

Robbins Pathology- Endocrine (Chapter 24) > Chapter 24- Pituitary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 24- Pituitary Deck (92)
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1

What are the specific symptoms commonly seen with a mass effect of pituitary lesions

-Bilateral temporal hemianopsia (compression of the nasal portion of the optic chiasm)
-Pituitary apoplexy (hemorrhage into adenoma)
-Underproduction of pituitary hormones
-Hyperprolactinemia

2

Which cells can be intermixed with somatotroph adenomas

Prolactin secreting cells

3

What are the treatments for a corticotroph adenoma

Somatostatin or dopamine agonists
*Express dopamine and somatostatin receptors

4

What is the released from the hypothalamus onto the pituitary for the release of TSH

Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH)

5

USP8 mutations are most commonly seen in which pituitary adenomas

Sporadic Corticotroph adenomas

*Results in EGFR up regulations

6

What is the released from the hypothalamus onto the pituitary for the release of prolactin

Dopamine

7

What are the causes for Cushing syndrome if there is high ACTH

ACTH dependent:
-Pituitary tumor (Cushing Disease)
-Ectopic ACTH producing tumor

8

How does the posterior pituitary receive regulatory hormones

Direct stimulation and release from the hypothalamus

9

How does a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma usually get found

Mass effect

10

What are the hormones released from the posterior pituitary

ADH and oxytocin

11

What is the result of the hypothalamus releasing GHRH

Increased GH released

12

What is the result of a craniopharyngioma in kids 5-15 years of age

Adamatntinomatous craniopharyngiomas, which is hardening of the bone there
-Results in Growth retardation from hypopharnygiomas

13

What are the characteristics of pituitary carcinomas

-Very rare
-Metastasized to brain

14

What are the complications seen with a Rathke’s cleft cyst

-Hypopituitarism
-Rupture leading to inflammation of meninges and pituitary

15

What are the conditions that can cause hyperprolactinemia

-Pregnancy
-nipple/lactation stimulation
-Loss of dopamine
-Mass lesion
-Renal failure (decreased production and decreased clearance of PRL)
-Hypothyroidism (increased TSH can stimulate PRL)

16

How does the anterior pituitary receive input via regulatory hormones

-Released from the hypothalamus into the hypophyseal portal system to reach that anterior pituitary

17

What is the most common cause of cushing syndome

Glucocorticoids

18

What is the tissue origin of the anterior pituitary

Oral ectoderm

19

What is the most common secretory pituitary adenoma

Lactotroph adenoma (aka prolactinoma)

*30%

20

What is the released from the hypothalamus onto the pituitary for the release of FSH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

21

What are the general symptoms of mass effect of pituitary lesions

Result of increased intracranial pressure:
Headache
Confusion
Shallow breathing
Nausea

22

What is the method used to establish a diagnosis of somatotroph adenoma

1) Serum levels of IGF-1 are measured looking for elevations

2) If IGF-1 is elevated, then perform a oral glucose tolerance test. If remains elevated, then positive

23

What conditions are caused by somatotroph adenoma

Gigantism and acromegaly

24

What is cushing’s disease

Caused by excess pituitary ACTH

*usually a corticotroph adenoma

25

What is empty sell syndrome

Hypopituitarism condition:
-CSF builds up and compresses the pituitary

26

What is the common neoplasm causing cushing syndrome

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

27

What are the findings in lactotroph adenomas as they progress

-Stromal hyalinization with psommoma bodies

-Dense calcification in the form of a pituitary stone

28

What is the released from the hypothalamus onto the pituitary for the release of growth hormone

Growth hormone releasing hormone

29

What is the histological finding in the anterior lobe

Glands, so forms adenohypophysis

30

What is the result of the hypothalamus releasing TRH

Increased TSH release