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Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (69)
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0
Q

anemia

A

condition in which levels of hemoglobin in the red blood cells are insufficient; caused by decreased healthy red cell production by the bone marrow, increased erythrocyte destruction, or blood loss from heavy menstrual periods or internal bleeding

1
Q

agglutination

A

clumping together

2
Q

aneurysm

A

abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery, related to weakness in the vessel wall

3
Q

angioplasty

A

surgical vessel repair procedure frequently used to reopen a blocked coronary artery

4
Q

aorta

A

largest artery of the body into which blood enters after it leaves the left ventricle

5
Q

arrhythmia

A

irregular heartbeat caused by a disturbance of normal electrical activity of the heart; pulse with an irregular rhythm

6
Q

arteriosclerosis

A

a thickening and loss of elasticity of the arteries; also called hardening of the arteries

7
Q

atherosclerosis

A

narrowing and hardening of the vessel lumen of the arteries due to a buildup of fatty material and plaque

8
Q

atria

A

the two upper chambers of the heart (27)

9
Q

atrioventricular (AV) node

A

one of the three areas of specialized neuromuscular tissue that initiate the heartbeat; located under the endocardium of the right atrium

10
Q

auscultation

A

listening to sounds within the body, such as heart sounds

11
Q

bicuspid valve

A

the valve through which the blood leaves the left atrium of the heart; also called mitral valve

12
Q

blood pressure

A

force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries

13
Q

bradycardia

A

abnormally slow heart rate of below 60 beats per minute

14
Q

bruit

A

sound made by a heart murmur

15
Q

buffers

A

mechanisms within the blood that balance the pH level, thus preventing blood from becoming too acidic or too alkaline

16
Q

bundle of His

A

one of the three areas of specialized neuromuscular tissue that initiate the heartbeat; also called atrioventricular (AV) bundle

17
Q

cardiac arrest

A

stoppage of the beating of the heart; also called sudden death

18
Q

cardiac tamponade

A

congestion of the heart muscle and restriction of heart movement caused by blood or fluid trapped in the pericardial sac

19
Q

cardiogenic shock

A

collapse of the cardiovascular system characterized by vasodilation and fluid shifting away from the heart

20
Q

carditis

A

inflammation of the heart

21
Q

carotid artery

A

artery found on each side of the neck

22
Q

congestive heart failure (CHF)

A

condition in which the heart cannot pump sufficient blood to the other organs; also called heart failure

23
Q

coronary arteries

A

crown of arteries that supply the heart with freshly oxygenated blood

24
Q

coronary artery disease (CAD)

A

blockage of the arteries that supply the heart muscle; also called coronary heart disease (CHD)

25
Q

cor pulmonale

A

heart disease that causes the right ventricle to enlarge as a result of primary lung disease; also called right-sided heart disease

26
Q

cyanosis

A

bluish discoloration of the skin and nail beds due to lack of oxygen in the tissues

27
Q

diastolic blood pressure

A

lowest cuff pressure at which the Korotkoff sounds disappear, when the left ventricle of the heart relaxes

28
Q

dyspnea

A

difficulty breathing

29
Q

endocardium

A

innermost lining of the heart wall

30
Q

erythrocytes

A

biconcave cells produced in the red bone marrow that are small enough to pass through capillaries and carry oxygen to the tissues and organs; also called red blood cells (RBCs)

31
Q

heart

A

four-chambered muscular pump that circulates blood throughout the cardiovascular system

32
Q

heart murmur

A

condition in which a damaged or diseased valve allows blood to escape and move backward through the valve

33
Q

hemoglobin (Hgb)

A

iron-containing pigment of red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body

34
Q

hemophilia

A

hereditary deficiency of clotting factors

35
Q

hemostasis

A

stoppage of bleeding as a result of the smooth muscle at the site of a break causing the vessel wall to contract, creating a spasm that reduces the amount of blood loss and initiating the attachment of platelets to the broken area and to each other, which forms a plug

36
Q

hypertension (HTN)

A

condition in which blood pressure is consistently higher than 140/90 mmHg; also called high blood pressure

37
Q

hypotension

A

condition in which blood pressure is consistently lower than 90/60 mmHg; also called low blood pressure

38
Q

hypoxia

A

insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues caused by ischemia and infarction

39
Q

infarction

A

death of heart muscle

40
Q

inferior vena cava

A

large vein that brings blood from below the heart to the atrium

41
Q

ischemia

A

reduced blood flow to the heart

42
Q

leukemia

A

malignant cancer of the bone marrow and blood, affecting the white blood cells

43
Q

leukocytes

A

two types (phagocytes and lymphocytes) of larger blood cells that fight infection and thus contribute to homeostasis; also called white blood cells

44
Q

mitral valve

A

the valve through which blood leaves the left atrium of the heart; also called bicuspid valve

45
Q

myocardial infarction (MI)

A

condition that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the myocardium is severely reduced or stopped; also called heart attack

46
Q

myocardium

A

middle muscular layer of the heart

47
Q

occlusion

A

blockage

48
Q

pericardium

A

outer lining of the heart wall

49
Q

petechiae

A

tiny broken blood vessels on the surface of the skin

50
Q

plasma

A

fluid portion of the blood; watery portion of the blood that contains blood cells

51
Q

platelets

A

smallest cells in blood, formed in the red bone marrow; main function is to assist in the clotting of blood for wound healing; also called thrombocytes

52
Q

prehypertension

A

in adults over 18 years old, blood pressure ranging from 120/80 to 139/89 mmHg, considered a precursor to hypertension

53
Q

pulmonary artery

A

artery that transports blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

54
Q

pulmonary vein

A

vein that transports freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium

55
Q

pulse pressure

A

difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures

56
Q

Purkinje fibers

A

specialized conductive fibers located within the walls of the ventricles, responsible for relaying cardiac impulses to the cells of the ventricles, which then contract

57
Q

RhoGAM

A

drug administered to a pregnant woman to inhibit the production of antibodies against the Rh antigen

58
Q

septum

A

wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart

59
Q

sinoatrial (SA) node

A

one of three areas of specialized neuromuscular tissue that initiate the heartbeat, located in the upper wall of the right atrium; also called pacemaker of the heart

60
Q

sphygmomanometer

A

instrument used to measure blood pressure

61
Q

stroke

A

result of a clot or hemorrhage in the brain blocking the blood supply and causing brain cells to die from a lack of oxygen

62
Q

superior vena cava

A

large vein that transports blood from the head and upper chest to the heart

63
Q

systolic blood pressure

A

upper number of blood pressure measurement indicative of the left ventricle of the heart contracting

64
Q

tachycardia

A

abnormally rapid heart rate

65
Q

thrombophlebitis

A

condition that occurs when a blood clot causes inflammation in one or more veins, typically those of the lower extremities

66
Q

tricuspid valve

A

heart valve from the right atrium to the right ventricle

67
Q

venipuncture

A

venipuncture

the process of cutting into or puncturing a vein, typically for the purpose of collecting blood samples for testing

68
Q

ventricles

A

two lower pumping chambers of the heart