Chapter 28: Hematologic and Renal Emergencies Flashcards

1
Q

Blood cells that transport oxygen to the cells of the body are:

A

Red

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2
Q

Blood cells that are critical in response to infection and mediate the body’s immune response are:

A

White

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3
Q

The part of the blood responsible for clotting is:

A

Platelets

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4
Q

The liquid part of blood is called:

A

Plasma

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5
Q

A disease caused by a genetic defect in a patient’s hemoglobin is called:

A

Sickle Cell Disease

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6
Q

Patients whose kidneys can no longer provide filtration and fluid balance have:

A

End-stage renal disease

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7
Q

Renal patients whose blood is filtered through a specialized machine are undergoing:

A

Hemodialysis

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8
Q

The vibration that can be felt by the EMT when a patient’s AV fistula is gently palpated is called:

A

Thrill

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9
Q

The extreme pain felt by sickle cell patients during a crisis results primarily from the sludging and accumulation of:

A

Red blood cells

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10
Q

End-stage renal patients who miss their dialysis treatments are at high risk for:

A

Cardiac arrest

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11
Q

A person who lacks a normal number of red blood cells is said to be [_____].

A

Anemic

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12
Q

Patients with sickle cell disease have abnormal, sickle-shaped [_________].

A

Red blood cells

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13
Q

[__________] is described as the failure of the kidneys to filter the blood and remove toxins and excess fluids from the body.

A

Renal failure

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14
Q

[________] is the liquid part of the blood that transports nutirients.

A

Plasma

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15
Q

Patients with end-stage renal disease will require [________].

A

Dialysis

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16
Q

The two primary types of dialysis are [________] and [_______].

A

Hemodialysis; Peritoneal dialysis

17
Q

ESRD patients who miss a dialysis treatment may have symptoms very similar to [______].

A

Congestive heart failure

18
Q

The most commonly transplanted organ is the [_______].

A

Kidney

19
Q

Renal patients in cardiac arrest may not respond to treatments with the [___________].

A

Automatic external defibrillator

20
Q

Sickle cell patients are at higher risk of having the [_______] destroyed by the disease.

A

Spleen

21
Q

List the 4 components of blood

A
  • White blood cells
  • Red blood cells
  • Plasma
  • Platelets
22
Q

List 6 complications from sickle cell disease

A
  • Destruction of spleen
  • Jaundice
  • Stroke
  • Sickle cell pain crisis
  • Acute chest syndrome
  • Priapism
23
Q

List 5 signs and symptoms that patients who miss their dialysis treatment may exhibit

A
  • Shortness of breath/respiratory distress
  • Fluid accumulation in lungs
  • Fluid accumulation throughout the body (hands & feet)
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Heart dysrhythmias
24
Q

List the 4 steps the EMT should take in treating a sickle cell patient

A
    1. Administer supplemental oxygen if the patient is short of breath, has chest pain, or oxygen saturation is below 95%
    1. Monitor patients with acute chest syndrome for signs of inadequate respiration and provide bag-valve mask ventilation as necessary
    1. Monitor patients with high fever for signs of hypoperfusion, and treat for shock if necessary
    1. Transport patients with acute stroke symptoms to a designated stoke center if available
25
Q

TRUE/FALSE: White blood cells transport oxygen to the cells of the body.

A

False

26
Q

TRUE/FALSE: Sickle cell disease is an inherited disease.

A

True

27
Q

TRUE/FALSE: Patients with lower than normal red blood cell counts have anemia.

A

True

28
Q

TRUE/FALSE: Patients with anemia often have sickle cell disease.

A

False

29
Q

TRUE/FALSE: Patients with end-stage renal disease do not require dialysis.

A

False

30
Q

TRUE/FALSE: Patients experiencing a sickle cell crisis do not experience severe pain.

A

False

31
Q

TRUE/FALSE: End-stage renal patients often miss their dialysis appointments.

A

True

32
Q

TRUE/FALSE: Sickle cell anemia results in the destruction of the kidneys.

A

False

33
Q

TRUE/FALSE: End-stage renal patients in cardiac arrest may not respond to shocks from an AED.

A

True

34
Q

TRUE/FALSE: Blood pressures can be taken in the arm with a fistula.

A

False