Chapter 28 vocab Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Chapter 28 vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 28 vocab Deck (87):
0

Organ

Several types of tissue that combine to preform specific functions

1

Tissue

A group of cells consisting of one or more cell types that work together to preform a practical at function

2

Root system

System consisting of a plant's roots

3

Shoot system

A system consisting of a plants stem and leaves

4

Root (functions)

An organ that works to anchor the plant, absorb minerals, and store carbohydrates

5

Taproot

A thick main root often found in tall plants

6

Lateral roots

Thinner roots that branch off the taproot

7

Fibrous root system

A root system found in shorter plants that consists of adventitious roots with lateral roots branching off. No main root.

8

Root hairs

Thin extensions of the epidermal cells in roots that increase surface area

9

Mycorrhizal associations

Mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots

10

Nodes

Locations where leaves connect to stems

11

Internodes

Spaces between nodes where laves don't grow

12

Apical bud (terminal bud)

A bud located at the shoot tip that causes stem elongation of a young shoot

13

Axiliary bud

A bud located on the side of a stem that has the potential to form a new branch

14

Leaf

The main photo synthetic organ of a plant

15

Blade

The flattened part of a leaf

16

Petiole

The stalk of the leaf that joins it to the stem

17

Stem

The organ of the plant that consists of nodes and internodes

18

Veins

The vascular tissue of a leaf

19

Dermal tissue

Outer protective tissue layer

20

Epidermis

The dermal tissue in non woody plants

21

Cuticle

A waxy covering that helps prevent water loss in most leaves

22

Periderm

An additional layer of dermal tissue added on top of epidermis in older sections of woody plants

23

Vascular tissue system

The tissue system that transports materials throughout the cell and provides support

24

Xylem

Vascular tissue that transports water and minerals upward from root to shoot

25

Ploem

The vascular tissue that transports photosynthates (e.g. Sugars) from sugar sources to sugar sinks

26

Stele

The term referring to to the collective vascular tissue of the shoot or root

27

Vascular cylinder

Root stele of angiosperms

28

Vascular bundles

Shoot stele

29

Angiosperms

Flowering plants

30

Ground tissue system

Composed of tissue that is neither dermal nor vascular

31

Pith

Ground tissue internal to vascular tissue

32

Cortex

Ground tissue external to vascular tissue

33

Parenchyma cells

Plant cell that preform the majority of metabolic functions and can divide and differentiate

34

Collenchyma cells

Cells with unevenly thickened call walls that offer flexible support for the cell

35

Sclerenchyma cells

Rigid cells that are dead at functional maturity

36

Lignin

A strengthening polymer found in sclerenchyma cells

37

Sclereids

Sclerenchyma cells that are short and irregularly shaped with thick cell walls

38

Fibers (cells)

Sclerenchyma cells that are long and thin and grouped in strands

39

Tracheids

Long thin cells with tapered walls that transport water through pits

40

Vessel elements

Water conducting cells that form end-to-end to form micro pipes called vessels

41

Sieve tube elements

Sugar-conducting cells that are alive at functional maturity but lack a nucleus and other organelles in order for easier passage of sugars

42

Sieve plates

The walls between drive tube elements that have pores allowing sugar to pass from one cell to another

43

Companion cells

Cells adjacent to sieve tube elements that share their organelles with s.t. elements

44

Indeterminate growth

Process by which a plant continues to grow for its entire life

45

Meristems

Undifferentiated tissues that divide when conditions permit

46

Determinate growth

When an organism or part of an organism stops growing when it reaches a certain size

47

Apical meristems

Meristems located at the tips of roots and shoots that allow for primary growth

48

Primary growth

Growth in length

49

Secondary growth

Growth in thickness

50

Lateral meristems

Cause secondary growth

51

Vascular cambium

Lateral meristem that adds layers of secondary xylem and secondary phloem

52

Cork cambium

Lateral meristem that replaces epidermis with periderm

53

Initials

Cells that divide from the meristem and stay in the meristem in order to divide again

54

Derivatives

Cells divided by the meristem that leave the meristem and differentiate

55

Vegetative growth

The production of leaves stems and roots

56

Reproductive growth

The growth if flowers, fruits, and seeds

57

Annuals (flower)

A flower that completes its life cycle in a year or less

58

Biennials (flower)

A flower that completes its life cycle in 2 years

59

Perennials (flower)

Require 3 or more years to complete life cycle

60

Herbaceous plants

Non-woody plants

61

Root cap

A cap that protects the root apical meristem as root pushes through soil

62

The zone of cell division

Contains the meristem and it's derivatives

63

The zone of elongation

Causes most growth as root cells elongate and push root through soil

64

The zone of differentiation

Cells become distinct cell types

65

Extracellular diffusion

Diffusion of water and minerals from root hairs into the cell

66

Endodermis

The innermost layer of the cortex that forms a selectively permiable barrier into the vascular cylinder

67

Pericycle

The outermost layer of the vascular cylinder from which lateral growth occurs

68

Leaf primordia

Horn-shaped projections adjacent to apical meristem from which leaves develop

69

Apical dominance

A phenomenon that causes axillary buds to remain dormant in the presence of an active apical meristem

70

Stomata

Pores in a leaf's epidermis that allow for gas exchange and control water loss

71

Guard cells

Two cells flanking the stomata that dictate opening and closing

72

Mesophyll

The ground tissue of a leaf, composed mainly of parenchyma cells, that specializes in photosynthesis

73

Palisade mesophyll

One or more layers of elongated parenchyma; found on the upper side of mesophyll

74

Spongy mesophyll

Found below the palisade; loosely arranged cells that air pis lets that allow gas exchange

75

Vascular rays

Secondary xylem or phloem that are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the stem or root. Connect xylem and phloem

76

Growth ring

A visible ring in woody plants caused by the different growth patterns in spring versus summer

77

Dendrochonology

The science of analyzing tree growth-use width of growth ring to determine climate at a given time

78

Heartwood

Old layers of secondary xylem that no longer transport water and minerals (xylem sap)

79

Sapwood

Newer, outer layers o secondary xylem that transport xylem sap

80

Cork cells

Products of cork cambium that accumulate on the exterior of cork cambium

81

Suberin

Waxy, hydrophobic material deposited by cork cells prior to death

82

Bark

A botanical term that includes all tissue external to the vascular cambium, mainly composed of secondary phloem and periderm

83

Lenticels

Raised area in periderm with less packed cork cells that allow for gas exchange in woody pants

84

Monocots

Embryo has single cotyledon, usually fibrous root system, mainly grasses and majority of agricultural products

85

Eudicots

Embryo has two cotyledons, taproot system, includes things like Apple trees sunflowers and maple trees

86

Angiosperm

A flowering plant; two main types are monocots and eudicots