Chapter 29 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 29 Vocab Deck (74):
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Lithosphere

Stone plants that live almost entirely underground

1

Phyllotaxy

The arrangement of leaves on a stem

2

Alternate/ spiral phyllotaxy

Stems have one leaf per node

3

Opposite phyllotaxy

Stems have two leaves per node

4

Whorled phyllotaxy

Stems have three or more leaves per node

5

Canopy

The leafy portions of all the plants in a community

6

Self-pruning

The process by which non productive leaves and or branches die and are shed

7

Apoplast

Anything exterior to a cell's plasma membrane (e.g. cell walls, extra cellular spaces)

8

Symplast

The entire living mass of the cytosol and the plasmadesmata and the cytoplasmic channels that connect them

9

Apoplastic route

What're and dilutes move along the continuum of cell walls and extra cellular spaces

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Symplastic route

Water and solutes move along the continuum of cytosol; only pass plasma membrane once, cross though plasmadesmata between cells

11

Transmembrane route

Water and solutes and passed from cell to cell though the plasma membrane and cell walls

12

Membrane potential

The voltage across the membrane as established by the pumping of H+ ions by proton pumps

13

Co transport

The use of the gradient of one solute to actively transport another solute.

14

Water potential

A quality that includes the effects of solute concentration and physical pressure

15

Mega pascal (MPa)

The unit of measure used to measure water potential

16

Solute potential

The effects the solutes in the water have in water potential; always expressed as a negative number (or 0)

17

Pressure potential

The physical pressure on a solution

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Protoplast

The living part of a cell, including plasma membrane

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Turgid pressure

Internal pressure that maintains the stiffness of cells and drives elongation

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Flaccid

Limp; lacking turgid pressure

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Plasmolysis

The process by which a flaccid cell shrinks away from cell wall

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Turgor

Very firm

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Bulk flow

The movement of liquid is response to a pressure gradient

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Aquaporins

Transport proteins in the cell membrane that allow the passage if water

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Essential element

An element that is necessary for a plant to complete its life cycle

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Hydroponic culture

A culture where plants are grown in mineral solutions in stead of water in order to identify essential elements

27

Macronutrients

Elements that the plant requires in large amounts:
Carbon
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Sulfur
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium

28

Micronutrients

Essential elements required in small amounts:
Chlorine
Iron
Manganese
Boron
Zinc
Copper
Nickel
Molybdenum

29

Co factors

Non protein helpers in enzymic reactions

30

Humus

Dead organism remains and other organic matter commonly found is soil

31

Fertilization

The addition of mineral nutrients to the soil

32

Loams

The most fertile topsoil, composed of roughly equal sand, silt, and clay

33

Anions

Negatively charged ions

34

Cations

Positively charged ions

35

Leaching

The passage of water through the soil

36

Cation exchange

The process that displaces cations from soil particles by other cations

37

Rhizobacteria

Soil bacteria, root bacteria

38

Rhizosphere

The soil layer surrounding a plant's roots

39

Plant-growth-promoting bacteria

Bacteria that enhances plant growth by producing chemicals that stimulate growth, as well as producing antibiotics, absorbing toxic minerals, and making nutrients more available

40

Nitrogen cycle

The transformations that nitrogen goes through in nature

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Ammonifying bacteria

Decomposers that convert organic nitrogen to ammonium (NH4+) by ammonification

42

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Bacteria which turn gaseous nitrogen (N2) into NH3 which picks up H+ ions, turning into NH4+

43

Nitrification

Two step process that oxidates NH4+ to nitrate (NO2-) and then oxidates nitrate to nitrate (NO3-), an absorbable form of nitrogen

44

Nitrifying bacteria

Mediate the steps of nitrification

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Nitrogen fixation

The reduction of N2- to NH3

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Rhizobium

A genus of bacteria that form associations with roots of legumes and alters their structure to be able to preform nitrogen fixation

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Nitrogenase

The enzyme that drives the multistep process of N2 fixation

48

Multistep nitrogen fixation equation

N2+8e-+8H++16ATP-> 2NH3+H2+16ADP+16(P)i

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Nodules

Swells along the legume root composed of cells "infected" with rhizobium

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Bacteroids

The form rhizobium take inside the nodules

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Ectomychorrhizae

A form of mychorrhizae that forms a dense sheath around the root surface and grows into extra cellular spaces

52

Arbuscular mycorrhizae

Mycorrhizae that respond to the presence of a root and grow towards it, establishing contact and growing along surface; penetrates cell walls by not plasma membrane

53

Epiphyte

A plant that grows on another plant without tapping into the host plant's resources

54

Parasitic plants

Plants that grow on another plant and tap into the resources of the host plant

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Carnivorous plants

Photosynthetic plants that supplement their diet by capturing and digesting small animals and insects

56

Casparian strip

A belt made of a substance impermeable to water and dissolved minerals found outside of the vascular cylinder, forcing xylem sap to pass through a cell into vascular cylinder

57

Xylem sap

The water and dissolved minerals that enter the xylem

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Transpiration

The loss of water vapor from leaves and other parts of the plants

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Cohesion-tension hypothesis

States that transpiration provides a pull for the ascent of xylem sap, and the cohesion of water pulls the entire column of water upwards

60

Cohesion

The attractive force between molecules of the same substance

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Adhesion

The attractive force between molecules of different substances

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Cavitation

The formation of water vapor pockets that break the chain of water

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Circadian rhythms

Cycles of 24 hours

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Abscisic acid (ABA)

Acid triggered in roots and leaves in instances if water deficiency, triggering guard cells to close

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Xerophytes

Plants adapted to dry conditions

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Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)

A form of photosynthesis that takes in CO2 at night when water loss is lowest and closes stomata during the day

67

Translocation

The transportation of photosynthates from mature leaves to roots via the phloem

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Phloem sap

The solution of photosynthates that flows through the sieve tubes

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Sugar source

An organ, tissue, or cell that produces sugar by the breakdown of starch or by photosynthesis

70

Sugar sink

An organ that is a consumer or depository of sugar

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Pressure flow

The building of pressure only to be released by the flow downward

72

Self-thinning

A process where if the number if sinks outnumber the number of sources, sugar sinks (flower, bud) are aborted

73

Chlorosis

yellowing of the leaves commonly associated with magnesium deficiency