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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (51):

What are the four major processes of life?

Growth - increase in size

Reproduction - Asexsual or sexsual

Responsiveness - change internal or external in reaction to stimulus 

Metabolism - take in nutrients and use them to provide energy, growth, reproduce, and be responsive. 


Give an overview of Eukaryotes cells.

Have nucleus 

Internal membrane bound organelles

Larger (10–100 µm diameter)

More complex structure 

Include algae protozoa, fungi, animals and plants


Give an overview of Prokaryotes cells.

Lack nucleus

Lack membrane bound organelles

Are small (1.0 µm)

Simple structure

Include bacterai and archaea 


What is the function and composition of gycocalyes? 

Outermost layer
Made of polysaccharides, polypeptides or both
Gelatinous, sticky
Made within and extruded to the outside.


What are benefits for human health with gycocalyes?

NOTES: Do not understand the difference between slime layers and capsules 

Protect from desiccation
Often indicator of pathogenicity (virulance factor)
Viscous (sticky), S. mutans
Avoid detection by host S. pneumoniae


Describe the function and structure of bacterial flagella.

Made of flagellin protein

Basal body, hook, filament

  The basal body anchors the filament and hook to the cell wall by a rod and a series of either two or four rings of integral proteins.

360 rotation motion, not wavelike. Ethier direction 

Counterclockwise = runs
Clockwise = tumbles


What are the flagellar arrangements?

Monotrichous (single polar)

Lophotrichous (tuft of polar)

Amphitrichous (both ends)

Peritrichous (entire surface)

Axial filament


Give an overview of fiimbriae

Sticky, bristle like projections
Used for adhesion to one another, to hosts, and to surfaces
Shorter than flagella
Serve an important function in biofilms


Give an overview of pili

  • Special type of fimbriae
  • AKA conjugation pili
  • Longer than fimbriae but shorter than flagella
  • Only one or two per cell
  • Mediate transfer of DNA from one cell to another


Define the term capsule.

Organized repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cell surface that form the glycocalyx. 


Define the term slime layer.

A loose, water-soluble glycocalyx 


What is facilitated diffusion?

Movement of substances
across a cell membrane via protein channels.


What is diffusion?

Diffusion is the net movement of a chemical down
its concentration gradient—that is, from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.


What is osmosis?

The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane


What is an isotonic state?

When solutions on either side of a selectively permeable membrane have the same concentration of solutes


What are some characteristics of  Fimbriae?

  • Sticky, bristle like projections
  • Used for adhesion to one another, to hosts, and to surfaces
  • Shorter than flagella
  • Serve an important function in biofilms


What are biofilms?

Organized, layered systems of bacteria and other microbes attached to a surface.


What is the function of the basal body?

Functions to attach the flagellum to the cytoplasmic


What are the characteristics of Peritrichous bacterial flagella?

They cover the cell


What is the Periplasmic space?

The space between the cytoplasmic membrane and the cell wall.


What are some characteristics of bacterial cell walls?

  • Give bacterial cells characteristic shapes
  • Protect cell from osmotic forces
  • Can be a target of antibiotics, or aid in resisting antimicrobial drugs. (penicillin)
  • Are composed of peptidoglycan
  • Are described as two basic types,  Gram-positive and Gram-negative


What are positive taxis and negative taxos?

Movement toward a favorable stimulus is positive, movement away from a favorable stimulus is negative


What is meant by gram positive?

Gram-positiveis a term used to describe bacterial cell walls that have a relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan that also contain unique chemicals called teichoic acids.


What is meant by gram negative?

Gram-negative is a term used to describe bacterial cell walls that have only a thin layer of peptidoglycan, but outside this layer is an asymmetric bilayer


What is a Pilus?

A pilus is a special type of fimbria that are longer than other fimbriae and usually shorter than flagella.


What is a Cytoskeleton?

It is an internal network of fibers that plays a role in forming a cell’s basic shape.


What are Endospores?

Unique structures produced by some bacteria that are a defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions

Bacteria stores ribosomes and important genetic info 


What is the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane?

The fluid mosaic model describes our current understanding of membrane structure.

 The term mosaic indicates that the membrane proteins are arranged in a way that resembles the tiles in a mosaic, and fluid indicates that the proteins and lipids are free to flow laterally within a membrane.  


What is cytoplasm and describe of the it's characteristics in bacteria?

  • Cytoplasm is the gelatinous material inside a cell.  
  • Cytoplasm is semitransparent, fluid,
    elastic, and aqueous.
  • It is composed of cytosol, inclusions, ribosomes, and in many cells, a cytoskeleton.


What are Inclusions?

Deposits found within bacterial cytosol (The liquid portion of the cytoplasm) that reserves deposits of lipids, starch, or compounds containing nitrogen, phosphate, or sulfur.


What are ribosomes?

Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis in cells, and bacterial cells have thousands of ribosomes in their cytoplasm.


What dose peptidoglycan composed of?

  • Glycan part (polysaccharide) made of long chains of two alternating sugars
    • N-acetlyglucosamine (NAG)
    • N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)
  • Held together or cross linked with the ‘peptido’ part (protein) attached to NAM's only
    • Protein differs between bacterial species


What is active transport?

ATP-dependent carrier proteins bring substances into cell.


What is Passive transport?

Processes require no use of energy by the cell; the electrochemical gradient provides energy.


What is lipopolysaccharide?

The inner leaflet of the outer membrane is composed of phospholipids and proteins, and the outer leaflet is made of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).


What is lipid A and what does it cause?

  • The lipid portion of LPS is known as lipid A
  • triggers fever, vasodilation, inflammation, shock, and blood clotting in humans


What shape is Cocci? 

Cocci is Sphere shape 


What shape is Bacilli?

Rod shape


What shape is spiriullum?

Swiggly line 


Strepto refer to what kind of gathering?

A chain like gather 


Staphylo- refer to what kind of gathering?

A grape like formation 


What does a hypertonic solution do to a cell?

Makes the cell loose water and shrivle 


What does a hypotonic solution do to a cel?

Makes the cell take in a lot of water and swell up. 


What is simple difussion? 

When the concentration move from high to low. 

Osmosis is also this but specifically with water 


What affects does the outer membrane have on the gram neagtive cell?

Makes drug such as pencillin more diffucult to break through. As compared to gram positive that only has a peptidoglycan to get through. 


What is the hook?

Point of attachment for flagella. 


How does the cytoplasmic membrane work?

The fluid mosacic model shows it to be basically the same as our own i.e. water loving phosolipids and hydrophobic lipds