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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (51):
1

What is the structure of nucleotides

Nucleotides

  • Deoxyribose sugar
  • Nitrogenous base pairs
  • Phosphate group

 

2

What is DNA replication?

– Replication is semi conservative

• New DNA composed of one original and one daughter strand

Key to replication is complementary base pairing of the two strands, which gives the template concept.

3

What enzymes are involved with Strand Seperation in DNA replication and what is their role?

Strand separation

Helicase- Unzips hydrogen bonds between nucleotides

Topoisomerases- Keeps strands from becoming tangled by releasing tension ahead of helicase

 

4

What enzymes are involved with  Building New Strands in DNA replication?

Building new strands

RNA primase -Produces pieces of RNA that act as an anchor for DNA polymerase III

DNA polymerase III- Makes the bulk of the replicated DNA

DNA Polymerase I – removes/replaces RNA primers with segments of DNA

DNA ligase-Binds Okazaki fragments into one strand

5

What is a gene?

Gene - specific sequences that that code for a protein.

6

What are the nitrogeneous base pairs?

(guanine, cytosine,
thymine, adenine, or uracil)

DNA:

  • C - G
  • G-C
  • T-A
  • A-T

RNA

  • C- G
  • G-C
  • U-A
  • A-U

7

What are nucleotides and what do they consist of?

Nucleotide- monomer of nucleic acids  

consists of three parts :

(1) phosphate (PO4);

(2) a pentose sugar, either deoxyribose or ribose 

(3) one of five cyclic (ring-shaped) nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), or uracil (U) (

8

What occurs in the nucleoid region?

transcription

9

What are the different types of plasmids?

 

– Fertility factors

– Resistance factors

– Bacteriocin factors

– Virulence plasmids

10

What are plasmids?

• Small loops of DNA that replicate independently

• Optional, not essential for normal metabolism, growth, or reproduction

• Can confer survival advantages

11

What is the leading strand?

The leading strand forms during DNA replication. 

leading strand is synthesized continuously—
5' to 3'—as a single long chain of nucleotides.

12

What is a Deoxyribose?

a pentose sugar which is found in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), or the nucleotides to be more specific

13

What is a genotype?

The genotype of an organism is the actual set of
genes in its genome.

 

14

What is a phenotype?

Phenotype refers to the physical features and functional traits of an organism, including characteristics such as
structures, morphology, and metabolism.

For example, the shape of a cell, the presence and location of flagella, the enzymes and cytochromes of electron transport chains, and membrane receptors that trigger chemotaxis are all phenotypic traits.

15

What is the central dogma of genetics?

The central dogma of genetics states that genetic information is transferred from DNA to RNA to polypeptides, which function alone or in conjunction as proteins.

16

What is transcription?

Information in DNA is copied as RNA

17

What is translation?

• Proteins (polypeptides) are synthesized from RNA

18

What are codons?

set of 3 bases on mRNA that corresponds to each DNA triplet. Each codon signals for a particular amino acid.

 

  • If Template DNA triplets are:

3’ ATG CTT AAC CGG 5’

  • Then the mRNA codons will be:

5’ UAC GAA UUG GCC 3’

19

What are anticodons?

Anticodons are triplets at the bottom of the tRNA loop. Anticodons are complementary to mRNA codons, and each acceptor stem ( which is on tRNA) is designed to carry one particular amino acid.  

 

 

20

Where is the site of protein synthesis?

ribosomes

21

What is DNA replication?

DNA replication is an anabolic polymerization process that allows a cell to pass copies of its genome to its descendants.

-Key to replication is complementary base pairing of the two strands, which gives the template concept.

 

22

Describe an inducible operon

Inducible operons are not usually transcribing and must be activated by inducers

Ex: Lactose operon, Arabinose operon (lab)

23

Describe repressible operons

Repressible operons are transcribed continually until deactivated by repressors

Ex: Tryptophan operon

24

What is a mutation?

A change in the nucleotide base sequence of a genome

– Rare event

– Almost always deleterious

25

What is a mutagen?

Physical or chemical agents called mutagens that induce mutations

26

What is a bacteriophage?

A virus that infects bacteria 

-they reproduce in bacteria

27

What is conjugation pili and what do they do?

Thin, proteinaceous tubes extending from the surface of a cell

Conjugation pili mediate the transfer of DNA from one cell to the othervia a process termed conjugation

28

What is a lagging strand?

a new
strand formed during replication that is synthesized 5' to 3' but in short segments that are later joined

29

What does triplet refer to when taling about DNA, RNA, or tRNA? 

triplet sequence of nucleotides

30

What is a competence cell

Cells that have the ability to take up DNA from their environment

Competence results from alterations in the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane that allow DNA to enter the cell. 

31

What is tRNA

A transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule is a sequence
of about 75 ribonucleotides that curves back on itself to form three main hairpin loops held in place by hydrogen bonding between complementary nucleotides.

32

What  is mRNA?

Messenger RNA molecules carry genetic information from chromosomes to ribosomes as triplet sequences
of RNA nucleotides (codons) that encode the order of amino acid sequences in a polypeptide.

33

What are the roles of DNA?

- Replication

  • Cell division
  • Need accurate copy

- Gene expression

  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Protein

34

What is protein synthesis

Process in wich cells build proteins.

DNA is simply a set of instructions on how to make proteins.

DNA tells you which amino acids to use, and in what order to assemble those amino acids to produce thecorrect protein.

35

What are operons?

special arrangements of prokaryotic genes that play roles in gene regulation

They consists of a promoter, a series of genes that code for enzymes and structures such as channel proteins needed in response to changed environmental conditions, and an adjacent regulatory element called an operator

36

Describe point mutations

– Point mutations

• Most common

• One base pair is affected

• Insertions, deletions, and substitutions

37

Describe frameshift mutations

Frameshift mutations

• Nucleotide triplets after the mutation are displaced

• Insertions and deletions

38

Describe silent mutation

Some base-pair substitutions produce silent mutations because the substitution does not change the amino acid sequence due to the redundancy of the genetic code 

For example, when the DNA triplet AAA is changed to AAG, the mRNA codon will be changed from UUU to UUC; however, because both codons specify phenylalanine, there is no change in the
phenotype—the mutation is silent because it affects the genotype only

39

Describe a missense mutation

 A change that specifies a different amino acid is called a missense mutation; what gets transcribed and translated makes sense, but not the right sense. T

40

Describe nonsense mutations

mutation occurs when a base-pair substitution changes an amino acid codon into a stop codon.

Nearly all nonsensemutations result in nonfunctional proteins.

41

Describe radiation of a mutagen

– Xray/gamma ray (ionizing) causes electrons to excite which can cause covalent bond breakage of the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA

– UV (nonionizing) causes pyrimidine dimers (covalent bonding)  warping the shape of DNA.

42

Describe nucleotide analogs

These compounds look like normal nucleotides, and when available may be erroneously substituted  for nucleotides.

– Can be useful antiviral or anticancer drugs due to heightened replication of these cells.

43

What are the three types of chemical mutagens

  1. Nucleotide Analogs
  2. Nucleotide-Altering Chemicals
  3. Frameshift Mutagens

44

What is conjugation?

Conjugation – primitive “mating”  between bacteria

45

Describe transformation

DNA exits one cell, taken up from the environment by another cell

Artificially induced in laboratory

  • - Cells that take up DNA are termed “Competent”
  • - useful tool for recombinant DNA technology

46

what is transduction

horizontal gene transfer, called transduction,
involves the transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a replicating virus

Transduction – Bacterial DNA transferred from one bacteria to another via a bacteriophage

47

 

What is a  Base substitution mutation

 type of mutation involving replacement or substitution of a single nucleotide base with another in DNA or RNA molecule.

48

What happens in horizontal gene transfer?

 Donor cell contributes part of genome to recipient cell

49

What are the 3 types of horizontal gene transfer

  1. • Transformation
  2. • Transduction
  3. • Bacterial conjugation

50

Define Transduction in regards to horizontal gene transfer

Transduction – Bacterial DNA transferred from one bacteria to another via abacteriophage

A bacteriophage Is a virus that infects bacteria

51

Chapter Critical thinking questions:
Pgs: 197, 205, 209, 212, 216, 221, 233
Questions for practice from the back of the chapter:
Multiple choice:
2, 5, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25
Fill in the blanks:
2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 11
Short answer 12 “fill in the table”
Labeling activity
Concept mapping activity

have fun :)