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Mesopotamia And The Fertile Crescent > Chapter 3 > Flashcards

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Fertile Crescent

An area of rich farmland in SW Asia where the 1st civilizations began.

1

What is silt?

A mixture of fertile soil and tiny rocks that can make land good for farming.

2

Polytheism

The worship of many gods.

3

Cuneiform

The worlds 1st system of writing developed in Sumer.

4

Ziggurat

A pyramid shaped temple in Sumer.

5

Monarch

A ruler of a kingdom or empire.

6

Hammurabi's Code

A set of 282 laws for daily life in Babylon.
It's the earliest set off written laws.

7

Chariot

A wheeled horse drawn cart used in battle.

8

Who is Nebuchadnezzar?

The most famous Chaldean king. He rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city.

9

What is division of labor?

It's when each worker specializes in a job.

10

If you live in a rural area you live in the country.
Living in an urban area you live in the ----------

City

11

Sumerians built strong walls around their city -states for protection. A city state called Kish became powerful. Over 1000 years the city-state Uruk became powerful. One of Uruk's kings is called______________

Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh became know for Sumerian Literature.

12

List 5 Sumerian achievements.

1. Invention of cuneiform it was first used to keep business records.
They wrote epics which were long stories or poems.

2. Developed the wheel.
3. Built sewers
4. Excelled in Math an Science.
5. Made advances in medicine.

13

Mesopotamian farmers built______________ to irrigate their fields.

Canals

14

While city dwellers were urban, farmers lived in ___________areas?

Rural

15

The people of Sumer practiced_______the worship of many gods.

Polytheism

16

Horse-drawn _______gave the Hitties an advantage during battle.

Chariot

17

The Babylonian king__________is famous for his code of laws.

Hammurabi

18

Sumerian society was organized in _____________ which consisted of a city and the surrounding lands.

City-state

19

*****make sure you know this.

Name 3 ancient civilizations developed in Mesopotamia.

1. Sumerians
2. Akkadians
3. Babylonians

20

T or F
The writing system was developed by the Babylonians. True or false

False
The writing system was developed by the Sumerians.

21

In Sumerian society peoples social class depended on their wealth and their__________.

Religion
Religion was very important in Sumerian society.
They practiced polytheism.

22

What was the most important contribution of the Phoenicians to our civilization?

They developed the alphabet.

23

Describe the Sumerian religion.

The Sumerian religion was very important. It played a role in nearly aspect of life.
They practiced polytheism, the worship of many gods.
Enlil lord of air
Enki lord of wisdom
Inanna lord of love and war
Utu and Nanna lord of sun and moon

24

*****
How did Fertile Crescent get its name?

It means a large area of rich farm land. It extends from the Persian Gulf to Mediterranean Sea.

25

How does having a surplus and agriculture lead to civilization developing?

Having a surplus (more than you need) of food and agriculture lead to civilizations developing because
1. fewer people needed to farm and more jobs were available.
2. New occupations developed like :
People became crafters, religious leaders, and government workers.
A division of labor was formed.
Then a society was formed and they could do more and laws were made to keep the society running.

26

The invention of the wheel and writing were important in the Sumerian life because

The wheel and writing made the Sumerians society more developed. They put their writing skills to use by writing down history, laws, grammar and math. They created epics, long poems to tell stories of heroes.
The wheel was the most important invention. The were the first to invent carts and wagons. They invented a pottery wheel that allowed them to make bowls on other tools that you make their society better.