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Flashcards in chapter 3 Deck (39)
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1
Q

Alkali Metal

A

An element in Group 1A, except for hydrogen, that is a soft, shiny metal with one electron in its outermost energy level

2
Q

Alkaline earth metal

A

An element in Group 2A that has two elections in its outermost energy level

3
Q

Atom

A

smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element

4
Q

Atomic Mass

A

The weighted average mass of a ll the naturally occurring isotopes of an element

5
Q

Atomic mass unit

A

A small mass unit used to describe the mass of extremely small particles such as atoms and subatomic particles, 1 amu is equal to one-twelfth the mass of a 12/6C atom

6
Q

Atomic Number

A

A number that is equal to the number of protons in an atom

7
Q

Atomic symbol

A

An abbreviation used to to indicate the mass number and atomic number of an isotope

8
Q

Chemical Symbol

A

An abbreviation used that represents the name of an element

9
Q

d block

A

the block of ten elements from Groups 3b to 2b in which electrons fill the five d orbitals in the d sublevels

10
Q

electron

A

a negatively charged subatomic particle having a minute mass that is usually ignored in mass calculations; its symbol is e

11
Q

electron configuration

A

A list of the number of electrons in each sub level within an atom, arranged by increasing energy

12
Q

electron dot symbol

A

the representation of an atom that shows valence electrons as dots around the symbol of the element

13
Q

energy level

A

a group of electrons with similar energy

14
Q

f block

A

the block of 14 elements in the row at the bottom of the periodic table in which electrons fill the seven f orbitals in the 4f and 5f sublevels

15
Q

group

A

a vertical column in the periodic table that contains elements having similar physical and chemical properties

16
Q

group number

A

a number that appears at the top of each vertical column in the periodic table and indicates the number of electrons in the outermost energy level

17
Q

halogen

A

an element in group 7A- fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine- has seven electrons in its outermost energy level

18
Q

ionization energy

A

the energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from the outermost energy level of an atom

19
Q

iostope

A

an atom that differs only in mass number from another atom of the same element. isotopes have the same atomic number (protons) but different number of neutrons

20
Q

mass number

A

total number of protons and neutrons in nucleus of an atom

21
Q

metal

A

an element that is shiny, malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity. the metals are located in the left or the heavy zigzag line of the periodic table

22
Q

Metallic Character

A

A measure of how easily an element loses a valance electron

23
Q

Metalloid

A

Elements with properties of both metals and nonmetals located along the heavy zigzag line on the periodic table

24
Q

neutron

A

a neutral subatomic particle having a mass of about 1 amu and found in the nucleus of an atom; its symbol is n

25
Q

noble gas

A

an element in group 8A (18) of the periodic table, generally unreactive and seldom found in combination with other elements, that has eight electrons (helium has two electrons) in its outermost energy level

26
Q

nonmetal

A

an element with little or no luster that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. The nonmetals are located on the right of the heavy zigzag line on the periodic table

27
Q

nucleus

A

the compact, extremely dense center of an atom, containing the protons an neutrons of the atom

28
Q

orbital

A

the region around the nucleus where electrons of a certain energy are more likely to be found. the s orbitals are spherical; the p orbitals have two lobes

29
Q

orbital diagram

A

A diagram that shows the distribution of electrons in the orbitals of the energy level

30
Q

p block

A

the element in Group 3A (13) to 8A (18) in which electrons fill the p orbitals in the p sublevels

31
Q

period

A

a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

32
Q

periodic table

A

an arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number such that elements having similar chemical behavior are grouped in vertical columns

33
Q

proton

A

a positively charged subatomic particle having a mass of about 1 amu and found in the nucleus of an atom; its symbol is p

34
Q

representative elements

A

an element in the first two columns not he left of the periodic table and the last six columns on the right that has a group number of 1A through 8A or 1,2 and 13 through 18

35
Q

s blocks

A

the elements in groups 1A and 2A in which electrons fill the s orbitals

36
Q

subatomic particle

A

a particle within an atom; protons, neutrons, and electrons are subatomic particles

37
Q

Sublevel

A

A group of orbitals of equal energy within principles energy levels. The numbers of sub levels in each energy level is the same as the principle quantum number (n)

38
Q

transition element

A

an element in the center of the periodic table that is designated with the letter “B” or the group number of 3 through 12

39
Q

valence electrons

A

electrons in the highest energy level of an atom