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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (40):
1

Robert Hooke

Developed cell theory

2

Sex cells

Aka germ cells
Reproductive cells: male sperm or female oocyte

3

Somatic cells

All body cells except sex cells

4

Centrosomes

Made up of two centrioles
Unique to animal cells
Functions:
Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division
Organization of micro tubules in cytoskeleton

5

Cytoskeleton

Proteins organized in fine filaments or slender tubes
Function:
Give structure and support
Give movement of cellular structures and materials

6

Plasma Membrane

Lipid bilayer containing phospholipids, steroids, protein, and carbohydrates
Separates cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid

Function:
Isolation: barrier
Protection
Sensitivity: extracellular fluid composition ; chemical signals
Support: anchors cells and tissues
Controls entry and exit of material: ions and nutrients enter; wastes eliminated and cellular products released

7

Microvilli

Extension of plasma membrane containing micro filaments
Function:
Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials

8

Cilia

Long extensions of the plasma membrane containing microtubules. (Fallopian tube, ear)
Function of Two types:
primary: acts as a sensor
motile: move materials over cell surfaces

9

Proteasomes

Hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at their ends
Contain enzymes (proteases)
Function:
Breakdown and recycle damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins

10

Ribosomes

Types:
RNA+ proteins
Fixed ribosomes bound to rough ER: manufacture proteins for cell
free ribosomes scattered in cytoplasm: manufacture proteins for secretion
Function:
Protein synthesis

11

Golgi Apparatus

Stacks of flattened membranes (cistern are) containing chambers
Function:
Storage
Alteration and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes

12

Mitochondria

Double membrane where cellular respiration occurs.
Inner membrane fold enclosing important metabolic enzymes
Function:
Produce 95% of the ATP required by the cell

13

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm
Cisternae: storage chambers within membranes
Function:
Synthesis of secretory products
Intracellular storage and transport
Detoxification of drugs of toxins

14

Peroxisomes

Vesicles containing degradative enzymes
Function:
Catabolism of fats and other organic compounds
Neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process

15

Lysosomes

Vesicles containing digestive enzymes
Function:
Intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens

16

Nucleus

Nucleoplasm containing nucleotides, enzymes, nucleoproteins and chromatin.
Surrounded by a double membrane, the nuclear envelope
Function:
Control of metabolism
Storage and processing of genetic information
Control of protein synthesis

16

Membrane lipids

Ions, water, and other water soluble things, charged things can't pass through bilayer.
Non charged like O2 and CO2 can pass through bilayer.
Phospholipid bilayer
- hydrophilic heads: toward watery environment, both sides
- hydrophobic fatty acid tails: inside membrane
- barrier to ions and water: soluble compounds

17

Integral proteins

Within the membrane (spans the width of the membrane)
Hydrophobic

18

Peripheral proteins

Bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane.
Need qualities that will make it interact with H2O (hydrophilic)

19

Anchoring proteins

Stabilizers
Attach to inside or outside structures

20

Recognition proteins

Identifiers
Label cells as normal or abnormal
Don't have a channel but detect things

21

Enzymes

Catalyze chemical reactions

22

Receptor proteins

Bind and respond to ligand so (ions, hormones)

23

Carrier proteins

Transport specific solutes through membrane

24

Channels

Regulate water flow and solutes through membrane

25

Membrane carbohydrates

Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids
Extend outside the cell membrane
Form sticky "sugar coating" called glycocalyx

26

glycocalyx

Lubrication and protection
Anchoring and locomotion
Specificity in binding (receptors)
Recognition (immune response)

27

Cytoplasm

All materials inside the cell and outside the nucleus
Cytoplasm:
- dissolved materials (nutrients, ions, proteins, and waste products)
- high potassium/low sodium
- high protein
- high carbohydrate/low amino acid and fat

Organelles: structures with specific functions

28

Organelles

Non membranous organelles
- no membrane
- direct contact with cytosine
Include: cytoskeleton, Microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and Proteasomes

Membranous organelles
- covered with plasma membrane
- isolated from cytoskeleton
Include: ER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria

29

Cytoskeleton

Structural proteins for shape and strength
Micro filaments
Intermediate filaments
Microtubules

30

Microfilaments

Thin filaments composed of the protein actin
Provide additional mechanical strength
Interact with proteins for consistency
Pair with thick filaments of myosin for muscle movement

31

Intermediate filaments

Mid sized between Microfilaments and thick filaments
Durable (collagen)
Strengthen cell and maintain shape
Stabilize organelles
Stabilize cell position

32

Microtubules

Large, hollow tubes of tubular protein
Attach to centrosome (during cell division)
Strengthen cell and anchor organelles
Change cell shape
Move vesicles within cell (kinesin and dynein)
Form spindle apparatus

33

Myosin

Allows shortening of muscle
In thick filaments

34

Autolysis

Self destruction of damaged cells

35

Chromatin

Loosely coiled DNA (cells not dividing)

36

Chromosomes

Tightly coiled DNA (cells dividing)

37

Isotonic

Solution that doe not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell

38

Hypotonic

Has less solutes and loses water through osmosis

39

Hypertonic

Has more solutes and gains water by osmosis