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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (65):
1

Atomic number

proton number

2

Atomic mass

Protons and neutrons

3

Neutrons

No charge

4

Electrons

Negative charge

5

Proton

Positive charge

6

Isotopes

Elements with same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

7

Atoms

Smallest stable unit of matter

8

Matter

Has mass and takes up space

9

Potential energy

Stored energy resulting from position or structure
- conversion isn't 100% efficient, resulting in release of heat

10

Kinetic energy

Energy of movement

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Molecule

Chemical structure consisting of molecules held together by covalent bonds

12

Compound

Chemical substance composed of atoms of two or more elements

13

Three types of bonds:

Ionic
Covalent
Hydrogen

14

Ionic bonds

Attraction between positive cations and negative anions

15

Covalent bonds

Strongest bond
Sharing of e-

16

Hydrogen bonds

Weakest bond
Polar covalent bonds that occur when hydrogen covalently bonds with another element.

17

Three types of covalent bonds:

Double covalent bond
Non polar bond
Polar covalent bond

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Molecules sharing two electrons with each other

Double covalent bond

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Polar covalent bond

A bond with unequal sharing of electrons

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Non polar covalent bond

Bond with equal sharing of electrons
Doesn't have polarity and cannot form attractive forces.
Lack of charges (partial + and partial -)

21

Molecular weight

Sum of the atomic weights of the component atoms

22

Chemical reactions

Occurs when reactants combine to generate on or more products.
All chemical reactions in the body constitutes metabolism

23

Metabolism

Sum of all reactions
Chemical reaction that provides for the capture, storage, and release of energy.

24

Work

Movement of an object or change in its physical structure

25

Energy

The capacity to perform work
(Heat isn't good for metabolic processes)

26

Three types of reactions:

Decomposition (catabolic)
Synthesis (anabolic)
Exchange

27

Catabolic

Energy releasing

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Anabolic

Energy releasing

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Activation energy

Amount of energy needed to begin a reaction

30

Enzymes

- Catalysts
- reduce energy of activation without being permanently changed or used up
- promote chemical reactions

31

Nutrients

Essential chemical compounds obtained from the diet

32

Metabolites

Molecules synthesized or broken down inside the body
What you make from breaking down the nutrients.

33

Organic compounds

Have carbon and hydrogen as their primary structural component

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Inorganic compounds

Not primarily carbon and hydrogen

35

Solution

Uniform mixture of two or more substances

36

Solvent

Medium in which molecules of solute are dispersed

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Aqueous solutions

Water is the solvent

38

Solute

Thing that disappears into the solvent

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Hydrophilic

Compounds that interact readily with water (bc of hydrogen bonding)
Ex. Salt, cotton, sugar

40

Hydrophobic

Compounds that do not interact with water

41

pH

Measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions solution
Three levels:
Neutral, acidic, basic

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Acids

Have extra H+ ions (hydrogen ions)
Release hydrogen ions into solution

43

Basic

Have extra hydroxide ion concentration (OH-)
Remove hydrogen ions from solution

Soapy feeling and bitter tasting

44

Stopping acids and bases

Ionize completely

45

Weak acids and bases

do not ionize

46

Buffers

Remove or replace hydrogen ions in solution.
Maintains pH of body fluids.

47

Salts

Electrolyte whose cation is not hydrogen and whose anion is not hydroxide

48

Organic compounds include:

Carbon
Hydrogen
And sometimes oxygen

49

Four major classes of macro molecules (Organic compounds):

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids (high energy compounds are also organic compounds)

50

Carbohydrates

- Energy source for metabolism
- different levels at which these compounds come together:
- monosaccharides
- disaccharides
- polysaccharides

51

Dehydration synthesis

Produces disaccharides and polysaccharides from monosaccharides

52

Six types of Lipids

- fatty acids
- eicosanoids
- glycerides
- steroids
- phospholipids: gives us structure
- glycolysis - lipids with sugars attached

53

Fatty acids

Saturated: single covalent bonds. Straight chain with hydrogen sulfide on every connecting point of carbon. Less healthy
Unsaturated: has double covalent bonds. Don't form straight chains, healthier

54

Trigoycerides

Three fatty acids attached by dehydration synthesis to one molecule of glycerol

55

Steroids

- involved in cell membrane structure
- important in lipid digestion
- include sex hormones

56

Six types of Proteins:

- structural: actin
- contractile: myosin
- transport: form channels to bring things in and out of cells
- enzymes:
- buffering: moderate pH ; hemoglobin (moderate pH of blood) ; albumin (dissolved in blood to help moderate pH. Binds hydrogen and hydroxide ions and keeps oH steady)
- antibodies: protein pieces that bind to pieces that are not part of you

57

Proteins are:

chains of amino acids
- if proteins are pushed outside of optimal temperature and pH range they become temporarily or permanently denatured and will cease to function

58

Amino acids

Contain an amino group, a carboxyl group and a radical group
-polypeptides

59

Polypeptides

Linear sequence of amino acids
Held together by peptide bonds

60

Four levels of protein structure:

- primary structure: amino acid sequence (linear chain of amino acids)
- secondary structure: amino acid interactions (weak bonds) (alpha-helix or pleated sheets)
-tertiary structure: complex foldings (ionic, covalent, hydrogen bonding)
- quaternary structure : protein complexes

61

Enzymes

- reactants (substrate) interact to yield a product by binding to the active site of the enzyme
- cofactors must bond to the enzyme before substrate binding can occur (usually minerals or vitamins
- coenzymes are organic cofactors commonly derived from vitamins

62

Nucleic acids

- chains of nucleotides
- store and process information at molecular level inside cells
- made of purine and pyramid investment
- DNA (double stranded) and RNA (single stranded)

63

Purines

Adenine and Guanine
- larger molecules

64

Pyrimidines

Cytosine
Thymine
Uracil
-smaller molecules

65

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Made by adding a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
Process referred to as phosphorylation.