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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (59):
1

4 Processes of Life

growth, reproduction, responsiveness, metabolism

2

kind of cell without a nucleus

Prokaryotes

3

kind of cell with a nucleus

eukaryote

4

specialized structures that act like tiny organs to carry on the functions of the cell

organelles

5

gelantious, sticky substance that surrounds the outside of a cell

glycocalyx

6

a glycocalyx of a bacterium composed of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cell surface

capsule

7

a loose water-soluble glycocalyx, protect cells from drying out

slime layer

8

drying out

desciccation

9

long structures that extend beyond the cell surface and propel a cell through the environment

flagella

10

3 parts of a flagella

filament, hook, basal body

11

flagella that cover the surface of a cell

peritrichous flagella

12

flagella only at the end of a cell

polar flagella

13

flagella that spiral tightly around a cell instead of protruding

endoflagella

14

movement in response to stimuli

taxis

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movement in response to a light stimulus

phototaxis

16

movement in response to a chemical stimulus

chemotaxis

17

sticky, bristle-like projections on bacteria to allow them to adhere to substance sin the environment or to each other

fimbriae

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slimy masses of microbes adhering to a substrate by means of fimbriae and glycocalyces

biofilms

19

tubules composed of a protein called pilin, longer than fimbriae, shorter than flagella

pili

20

4 functions of a cell wall

1. provide structure and shape to the cell
2. protect the cell from osmotic forces
3.assists in attaching to other cells
4. resists antimicrobial drugs

21

spherical cells that appear singly, in chains, clusters, or cuboidal packets

cocci

22

rod-shaped cells that appear singly or in chains

bacilli

23

complex polysaccaharide that makes up cell walls

peptidoglycan

24

millions of NAG and NAM molecules that are covalantly linked in chains in which NAG alternates with NAM

glycan portions of peptidoglycan

25

crossbridges of 4 amino acids that attach chains of NAG and NAM

peptido portion of peptidoglycan

26

2 types of bacterial cell walls

Gram-positive and Gram-negative

27

beneath the glcocalyx and the cell wall, also called the cell membrane or plasma membrane

cytoplasmic membrane

28

structure of the cytoplasmic membrane

phospholipid bilayer

29

attracted to water

hydrophilic

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repelled by water

hydrophobic

31

membrane structure with mosaic indicating the membranes proteins arranged in a mosaic and fluid indicating the protein and lipids allowed to flow freely within the membrane

fluid mosaic model

32

functions of a cytoplasmic membrane

1. controls passage of substances into and out of the cell
2. produces molecules for energy storage
3. harvest light energy in phosynthetic bacteria

33

allows some substances to cross the membrane and prevents others from crossing

selectively permeable

34

difference in concentration of a chemical on the two sides of a membrane

concentration gradient

35

voltage across the membrane

electrical gradient

36

net movement of a chemical from an area of higher concentration to and area of lower concentration

diffusion

37

proteins in the cyctoplasmic membrane act as channels or carriers to allow certain molecules to diffuse in or out of the cell

facilitate diffusion

38

diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

osmosis

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when solutions on either side of a selectively permeable membrane have the same concentration of solutes

isotonic

40

when the concentrations of solutions are unequal, the higher concentration of solutes

hypertonic

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when the concentrations of solutions are unequal, the lower concentration of solutes

hypotonic

42

3 mechanisms of active transport

1. uniport - one chemical at a time
2. antiport - 2 chemicals in opposite directions
3. uniport couple with a symport - - 2 substances in the same direction

43

active process in some bacteria, substance being transported across the membrane is chemically changed during transport

group translocation

44

gelatinous material inside a cell

cytoplasm

45

liquid portion of the cytoplasm

cytosol

46

region of a prokayote that contains the cell's DNA

nucleoid

47

deposits found withing bacterial cytosol, include lipids, starch, or compounds containing nitrogen, phosphate, or sulfur

inclusions

48

Where do many bacteria store carbon and energy

in molecules of glycogen or in a liquid polymer called plyhydoxbutyrate

49

a structure produced by some bacteria to defend it from hostile conditions

endospore

50

site of protein synthesis in cells

ribosomes

51

internal network of fibers in a cell, helps to form a cell's basic shape

cytoskeleton

52

similar structure without having a common ancestor

analagous structures

53

fimbriae-like structures that radiate out from archaea, like barbed wire, function to securely attached arahaea to biological and inanimate surfaces

hami

54

Functions of eukaryotic gluycocalyces

1. helping to anchor animal cells to each other
2. strengthening the cell surface
3. providing some protection against dehydration
4. cell-to-cell recognition and communication

55

assemblages of lipids and proteins that remain together, funtctions 1. signaling the inside of a cell 2. protein sorting 3. some kinds of cell movement

membrane rafts

56

active transport that occurs when pseudopodia surround a substance and bring it into a cell

endocytosis

57

when a solid is brought into a cell by endocytosis

phagocytosis

58

when a liquid is brought into a cell by endocytosis

pinocytosis

59

reverse of endocytosis, enables substances to be exported from a cell

exocytosis