Flashcards in Chapter 3: How Did the Western Worldview Grow Out of the Renaissance Deck (30):
What two views of Religion existed in the Western worldview at the time? What did they believe?
One believed that individuals should follow the rules, rituals, and teachings of the Roman Catholic Church; one believed that individuals should question and respond to the Bible personally.
What did Humanists question before the Protestant Reformation?
Humanists and their followers questioned the behaviour of some of the popes and clergy. They also questioned the necessity of following the Church laws and rituals that the Church expected people to follow without question.
Fill in the blanks:
Many wanted to see _____ but did not want a break from the _____ ________ Church. This desire for ______ and ______ within the Church became the basis of the Protestant Reformation
Many wanted to see reforms but did not want a break from the Roman Catholic Church. This desire for reform and change within the Church became the basis of the Protestant Reformation.
Why was the printing press such an important factor on the Protestant Reformation?
Short fliers and tracts urging Church reform could be easily produced and distributed. It also lead to an increase in literacy and the spread of ideas.
What did the reformation cause?
The reformation caused major division among Christians that led to religious wars and new religious ideas that became basis for Protestantism.
Who was Martin Luther?
(1483-15460) A German priest and professor at the University of Wittenburg, 1 of the most important reformers. He wanted to reform some practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
What did Martin Luther believe?
• following the rituals of the institution of the Church was not enough to get into heaven
• individuals should seek personal religious understanding
• individuals should not pay the Church to receive forgiveness for their sins
How did Martin Luther influence Germany?
German princes and members of the new merchant class agreed with Luther’s ideas. Much of their support was on political and economic reasons, they wanted more power in regions. The idea of religious reform spread throughout Germany. In fact, the calls for Church reform, printed in the German language, helped create a sense of national identity and pride among many Germans. This sense of nationalism and identity as citizens of a state was becoming an important part of the European worldview
How did Martin Luther start spreading his reforms?
Luther began to speak public of his concerns. He wrote pamphlet with his reforms. The pope agreed only with a few but his books were burned and he was expelled from Catholic Church. In protest he started a church that many joined they became know as Protestants.
What happened in Spain involving Religious Reformation?
The Spanish monarchy did not allow the practice of any religion other than Roman Catholicism, making it the state religion. Thousands of Jews and Muslims were persecuted and expelled from the country. Heretics and unbelievers were often jailed, tortured, or put to death.
What did the fight for religious freedom do?
The fight for religious freedom created a sense of solidarity and common identity among people that influenced the formation of countries.
What are the reasons that states started to develop into countries?
- Societies became more urban
- Citizens developed new identities of belonging to a state, such as a community.
- Gunpowder was introduced from China, which changed the nature between monarchs and the nobles who owned feudal properties
- The invention of the printing press and the use of local languages helped create national identities.
- Exploration of new lands also led to a sense of greater national identity
What changes happened in Social Systems?
- People began to see themselves as citizens of a country.
- Exploration of new lands promoted personal feelings of optimism and importance of seeing what the world has to offer
- Citizens were more free to move out of their class.
- Some public services began to be provided by central government.
- Growth and power of stats put them in competition with Church
What changes happened in the political and economic systems?
- Rulers headed strong central governments.
- Government policies set up to ensure political and economic independence.
- Permanent armies were established, paid for by taxes
- Resources were provided for large projects of national importance.
- Centralized laws and rules were set in place by king
- National economic policies, such as tax rules controlled trade and business.
What changes happened in culture?
- Common national languages unified the citizens.
- More middle and upper class people became literate and could read works in their own language.
- Religious literature was published in the vernacular languages
- A single, unified language chosen from the various dialects became national language of each country
What are the factors affecting expansionism?
- The need for new trade routes
- Interest in Learning More About the World
Explain the need for new trade routes.
Silk road was limited and not meet demands.
- Companies started to form
- Countries in west Europe too far from the east to deal directly with the producers
- Merchants no longer wanted to trade with the middlemen
- Trades from Venice to Genoa were no longer allowed to pass through straits.
- New ways to China and Asia became a priority
- Aristotle thought Earth flat
- Ptolemy believed Earth is sphere shape
- Ptolemy miscalculated the circumference of Earth, Led explorers to underestimate the time it take to Asia
Explain Interest in Learning More About the World.
- Travel writers during the 16th century also created interest in trade and exploration
- Travel writers promoted idea 1 should experience and observe the world at most
- to stay competitive in trade technologies and knowledge had to be better than rivals
- As advances in cartography, navigation, and shipbuilding meant ships travel farther
- Two new ships: the carrack
and the caravel
- Compass was now in used
- Printing press made it easier to write maps and navigational tables.
Who was Henry the Navigator?
(1394–1460) was a Portuguese prince who set up a school of navigation in 1419 in Portugal
- Under his direction scholars came from all over and prefected sailing techniques, instruments, designs for sails, and mapping
What two practices used by explorers did Henry established?
- He was the first to require his captains to keep loge, or diaries of their journey
- He also required his captains to conscript speakers of the languages of the explored areas.
What factors set Portugal, France, Spain, and England to become leading players in the Age of Exploration?
- Each had an Atlantic coastline
- The monarchs of these countries finances overseas explorations
- They had new ship designs, navigational tools and knowledge
What happened in Portugal?
- Their sailors headed south and east along Africa hoping to fin route to China
- Bartholomew Diaz sailed along the coast of Africa and was the first European to reach the Cape of Good Hope.
- ten years later, another Portuguese explorer, da Gama, was the first European to cross the Indian Ocean to India
- Portugal defeated Arab strongholds in the area and set up posts
- They eventually expanded to eastward to China
What happened in Spain?
- Jealous of Portugal's wealth and power so it decided to do it own expeditions
- Pope gave Portugal coasts of Africa and India
- so sailed across Atlantic but did not know about the Americas
Who is Columbus and what did he do?
- Set sail from Spain and after almost ten weeks at sea, sighted an island that he believed was close to Japan
- But he actually found the Caribbean
- He travelled back 3 times thinking it was Asia
- He first asked Portuguese king to sponsor him but nothing.
- But that many years of lobbying he convinced England to sponsor him.
Who is Magellan and what did he do?
- Ferdinand Magellan explored the east coast of South America
- He discovered a passageway at the tip of South America, Strait of Magellan
- He named it Pacific Ocean
- He reached Indonesia (east part of Asia)
- Killed in Philippines, one ship returned to Spain
- WAS THE FIRST TO SUCCESSFULLY CIRCUMNAVIGATE THE GLOBE!
What happened with England?
- Wanted more trade in Europe not outside
- Few voyages, but John Cabot was the first explorer since the Vikings to reach North America
- England decided to expand since of Portugal and Spain's riches
- By beginning of the 12th century, they had established more colonies along the North America Atlantic Coast and West Indies
What happened in France?
- France was distracted by
its ongoing war with England and in half of 16th century, its wars in Italy.
- French expedition to Florida was defeated by the Spanish they explored more north
What happened with Imperialism?
- Countries saw that they had so many colonies that they had an empire
- The imperialism of the Western European countries was built on the desire to increase their wealth and power.
- Countries became competitive
- Imperialism has existed as part of human civilization from early times, but historians did not use this word until the 19th century.