Flashcards in Chapter 5: What Factors Influenced Change in Meiji Japan? Deck (28):
What was the influence of Russia?
- The czar gave the company the authority to trade with the Ainu and to gain control of the new territories.
- Russia in wars with Europe gave Japan some time before they had to face Russia
- They warned the shogun that the Bakufu were too concerned with internal affairs and should be more prepared for trouble that could come from the outside world.
What was the crisis with Russia?
- The Bakufu learned that Russian settlers had reached the third Kuril Island and were introducing the Ainu to Russian culture and to Christianity.
- 1801 Not wanting to lose these islands, a team of Japanese claimed the island for Japan and drove the Russians from it.
- 1804 A Russian envoy landed at Nagasaki with a letter from Czar Alexander I asking to establish trade relations with Japan. The Bakufu did not respond for six months and than the Japanese government was not interested in trade with foreign countries.
- 1805 Angered at having been made to sit in Nagasaki for so long waiting for an answer, the ship’s captain authorized nuisance attacks on Japanese settlements. Thought Japan would respond to force and change mind about trading with Russia.
- 1811 The Japanese government became more determined to maintain its isolation policy and also to keep control of its territory. To demonstrate its strength, the commander of a Russian ship was captured and kept in Nagasaki for two years before releasing him to the Dutch
Who were the Ainu people an who were they treated?
- Considered to be descendants of Japan’s first Indigenous people
- who anthropologists and archaeologists say came from Russia over 25 000 years ago
- look different than Japanese
- have own language
- under Tokugawa shoguns the Ainu had to allow Japanese people to fish on their lands and could no longer have their own trade agreements
- forced to stay separate from Japanese Society
- With Japan worried about the Russian forces the Ainu people were forced to assimilate with the Japanese, The Ainu language was forbidden and their customs as well.
What was the influence of Europe?
- Dutch decided to hire ships from other countries to carry on its trade in Asia.
- Eventually Japanese officials thought it was important for them to learn about the West
- Some thought that the European Language was just one cause of the way they wrote so they thought that since all languages and fashions were very similar there must be one superpower in Europe
What was the Japan's Response to the European's by making a Don't Think Twice edict?
- Bakufu expel all foreigners
- Takahashi thought it time to be even more isolated cause ships of foreigners were gathering around Japan like flied to a bowl of rice
What was the influence of China?
- China lost much of it power over its seaports when Britain won war with them
- China forced to sign a treaty that gave Britain special privileges.
- These included the right to land at specific ports, having low fixed tariffs on goods coming into and leaving China, and not having Chinese law applied to Westerners on Chinese soil.
- Treaty was unfair towards the Chinese, by signing the treaty Japan saw China as weak and losing its power
What was the Japan's response to the U.S.A named the Retreat and Ignore?
- Bakufu finally realized how strong the English forces were
- Seeing how China lost its power they rethought the Don’t-think-twice edict, they abandoned it because they were afraid of the British and Western countries to invade
- King Willem II of the Netherlands sent a letter to the Bakufu recommending that they open Japan’s doors willingly to the West, but by the time that the Bakufu replied with “that’s impossible” foreign ships had already reached the Japan’s harbours
What was the Dutch East India Company?
- small independent Dutch companies combined formed the Company
- Became largest and most impressive
- first to sell stocks
- government of dutch granted it a monopoly on dutch trade from South Africa to india and all the way to Japan.
- During the 18th century it suffered major loss as the sugar market collapsed due to oversupply, loses so great it ended up closing
What was Commodore Perry's main objectives when he entered the harbour of Edo for the first time?
- To get supplies and coal from Japan
- to protect sailors and American ships that might need help
- to enter into an official trade agreement with Japan
What was the crisis with America?
- 1845 The American government sent a representative to Japan with the hope of discussing trade and establishing a coal station. But landed in Edo so he had to go back to China
- 1853 Commodore Matthew Perry entered the harbour at Edo with four war ships.
- 1854 Commodore Perry returned with an even stronger squadron. Instead of declaring war on Perry, the Bakufu signed the Treaty of Kanazawa.
- 1856 Townsend Harris, an American consul, was appointed to organize a more complex trade agreement. The shogun sought support for the treaty from the emperor, but did not receive it.
- 1858 After long negotiations, the Harris Treaty was finally signed. The treaty allowed Americans to live in Edo and Osaka under the protection of American law.
- 1863 Five ports were now open to the US, allowing goods to enter and leave Japan. The US also negotiated an agreement to supply Japan with ships, arms, and technicians.
The Treaty of Kanazawa involved which 2 of Perry's objectives?
- Two ports were to be opened to US ships and coal and supplies would be available there for American ships.
- Shipwrecked sailors along the Japanese coastline would be helped.
What was Japan's Respond to the treaty signed with U.S?
- Eventually, Japan was also pressured to sign treaties with Russia, Britain, France, and the Netherlands. These treaties were also considered to be unequal.
- Many felt that the shogun was no longer in control and had been humiliated
- Isolation was no longer possible
Who was Commodore Perry>
- Joined the navy at age 15 using older brother name
- became known as the father of the steam navy
- than promoted to commodore
- Perry proposed a plan for diplomatic missions to Japan and three years later, left for Japan to negotiate a Japanese trade treaty.
- he was instrumental for the end of Japan’s isolation
Who were Sakuma and Yoshida?
- Sakuma and Yoshida were both inspirational samurai teachers who were interested in Western technology and also thought that war against the West was inevitable.
- They valued and taught the Confucian teachings of loyalty, dedication to society, and combining knowledge with action.
What did Sakuma and Yoshida do before they disagreed?
- Sakuma and Yoshida watched Commodore Perry’s warships, the black ships, sail into the Edo harbour
- When studied the technology they knew that in order for Japan to win they would have to learn more about Western technologies
- Eventually Sakuma and Yoshida did not agree on what Japan should do
What did Sakuma do/believe?
Sakuma continued to work with the Bakufu and to promote the learning of Western technology
What did Yoshida do/believe?
- Yoshida urged overthrown of Bakufu and wanted to return power to emperor, also that Japan declare war onKorea and other neighbouring countries
- Yoshida believed in taking action to promote his point of view
- Decided to find out more about technologies of the West ignoring the bacon travel and boarding one of American ship, Both he and Sakuma were
arrested and imprisoned.
- Yoshida was arrested when he tried to kill 1 of the shogun’s, than beheaded 2 months after his 29th birthday
Who was Yoshida's teacher?
What were the 2 different point of views to the crisis?
1. One group thought that Japan could no longer be isolated so the suggested to learn about Western technologies and use them to become more powerful and to remain independent
2. Another group believed that Japan could remain isolated and make war against the Western countries as well that the “barbarians” in Japan should be killed and that they will change all the class structures
Who was Tokugawa Nariaki and what did he do?
- Lord of Milto domain
- argued against any agreements with the U.S.A
- beloved that Shogun should resign and the imperial court should be in charge o the government as away to maintain national sovereignty
Who was Li Naosuke and what did he do?
- Powerful warlord and statesman
- believed Japan’s best interest to begin trade relations with the West
- argued that Japan should open boarders
- believed that by signing treaties Japan could take the time to build enough strength to ban foreigners again in the future
What is the civil unrest?
- mid-1800s there was unrest across the country, bad weather had caused bad crops causing poor crops and the farmers and peasants were starving
- began questioning the taxes, some people were blaming the government for the crisis
- People starting to support more the emperor so the Shogun decided to create new government with the slogan “Sonno Jo” which meant, “Revere the emperor! Expel the barbarians.”
- Began increasing their military armaments and even purchased weapons and ships from the West. Even groups of women broke with tradition to form military brigades to fight the shogun’s troops.
- Was starting to become chaotic
- Samurai forced Shogun to resign and the new emperor came into power and took away all the Shogun power, because of this the Shogun used military force and fought in war. Until finally their military forces were destroyed.
- The Tokugawa Era, which had lasted more than 250 years, was over.
What is the origin of the Emperors of Japan?
- Creation story was about the sun goddess giving he imperial regalia to her grandson and it started to get passed down to the next emperor who would come into rule
- after WW ll the emperor was no longer truly in charge
What was the new leadership that helped Japan reshape its worldview and begin to modernize?
- Men who had overthrown the Tokugawa Bakufu formed an oligarchy and were in charge’
- Created changes that promoted economy growth; their slogan was, “Enrich the country; strengthen the military.”
- Many who were in charge were young and many studies under Yoshida or Sakuma, like Yoshida they didn’t want foreigners but they than thought the the Western technology could help Japan
- They had 2 key goals:
to modernize Japan and make the economy grow
to renegotiate the unequal treaties
- Japan now welcomed what foreigners had to offer
- New leaders sent half of their members to go abroad to learn about everything of the successful Western nations
What was the external pressures on modernizing Japan?
- The world economy was more and more being fueled by trade between countries. When the Western nations began trading with China, it was inevitable that they would want to trade with Japan.
• Russia was making its presence felt in the northern islands. Japan took over Hokkaido, harming the Ainu people.
• More European nations wanted to trade with Japan, but the Dutch were the only nation allowed. Other countries’ ships pretended they were Dutch and managed to trade with the Japanese.
• China had been a very powerful country in the region. When China lost its power to Britain and other European countries, Japan realized how powerful the Europeans were becoming in the region.
- The United States sent warships; they suggested threats of invasion if Japan did not sign a trade treaty. They signed a treaty that began opening Japan up to the world.
What was the internal pressures of modernizing Japan?
• When the Japanese government sent young men to study at Deshima, they were exposed to new ideas and philosophies of the West.
• Young intellectuals in the Bakufu believed that for Japan to remain an independent nation, it had to open its doors. Many of them secretly visited Western nations.
• Civil unrest in the country reduced support for the Bakufu. Citizens questioned whether the Bakufu were weak and unable to take care of the country.
• Enemies of the shogun and the Bakufu used the civil unrest and the signing of the unequal treaties to their advantage. They began to call for the return of the emperor to rouse feelings of nationalism.
From what year to what year was the Edo period?
1603 - 1868