CHAPTER 3 || Structure of Words: Morphology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTER 3 || Structure of Words: Morphology Deck (28):
1

AFFIX

Suffixes, prefixes and infixes.

A bound morpheme attached to a root or stem, modifying its meaning in some way forming a lexical or grammatical word with it.

Ex. dis- and -ed in displaced. (place is the root)

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ALLOPMORPH

One of the alternative phonemic forms of morpheme.

Ex. The prefix in- in English has allomorphs /ɪn/, /ɪm/ and /ɪŋ/ depending on the first segment of the root to which it is attached, as in inexplicable, implausible, and incredible.

 

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BOUND MORPHEME

A morpheme that cannot occur as a seperate word by itself, but must be attached to another item (the root).

Ex. The English morphemes -ly, and -ed

Bound morphemes must be attached to a root (all morphemes are either free or bound).

The following are bound morphemes underlined:

  • mangoes
  • huckleberry
  • hottest
  • waterer
  • disestablish
  • (she) runs
  • Chomskyite

These morphemes do carry meaning (-s for example, tells us that there's more than one mango), but none of these morphemes can be used on their own. You cannot simply say er, or dis (without changing the meaning to the verb diss), which is how they differ from free morphemes.

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CASE

A morphological category of nouns and/or pronouns that indicates the grammatical role of a noun phrase in a clause or another noun phrase.

Ex. Us is the accusative form of the first person plural pronoun, used when it serves in the object role, as in They saw us.

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CLITIC

A grammatical morpheme that behaves like an independent word, and at best loosely related to the word it is attached to.

It does not give rise to a new form of a lexical item (like an inflectional affix), or a new lexical item (like a derivational affix).

Ex. The contraction of the morpheme is, as in What's going on?

Ex. The possessive marker 's, as in The man in the black coat's book.

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COMPLEX WORDS

"The farmer kills the duckling."

Complex words: farmer, kills, duckling.

Complex words DO have internal structure.

Complex words can be divided into smaller meaningful pieces:

  • farmerfarm and -er
  • kills kill and -s
  • ducklingduck and -ling

These pieces (farm, -er, kill, -s, duck, -ling) cannot be divided into smaller meaningful pieces.

These pieces are called morphemes

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DERIVATIONAL MORPHEME

A bound morpheme added to a root or stem to form a new stem. 

Ex. The suffix -er in English is used to transform the verb bake into the noun baker.

Ex. The morpheme -ly changes the adjective quick into the adverb quickly.

Ex. We can change adjectives such as happy into nouns such as happiness by using the derivational morpheme -ness.

Other common suffixes include -ism, -tion, -able, -ment and -al. Derivational morphemes can also be prefixes, such as un-, in-, pre- and a-.

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ENCLITIC

A type of clitic that is attached to the end of the word.

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FREE MORPHEME

"The farmer kills the duckling."

Free morpheme: the, farm, kill, duck.

A single linguistic unit which carries meaning (the definition of a morpheme) and can be used on its own as a word. Other examples:

  • mango
  • berry
  • hot
  • water
  • establish
  • (to) run
  • Chomsky

What makes them single morphemes is that they cannot be divided further into meaningful units.

Mango, for example, has no internal meaning of man or go; it is a single morpheme that means, roughly, "a tropical ovoid fruit, which grows on a tree of the same name, is orange when ripe, etc."

What makes these morphemes free is the fact that they may be used as stand-alone words.

10

INFIX

A bound morpheme that is inserted WITHIN a root.

Ex. "Abso-Bleedin'-Lutely"

Ex. "Well, I can guaran-damn-tee ya. Dannie's not playin'."

Tagalog uses a lot of infixes to portray past tense.

11

INFLECTION

A change in the form of a word (typically the ending) to express a grammatical function or attribute such as tense, mood, person, number, case, and gender.

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INFLECTIONAL MORPHEME

A bound grammatical morpheme that gives rise to a form of a word expressing a certain grammatical category, such as past tense as in walked, or plural number as in dogs.

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LEXEME or LEXICAL ITEM

A basic lexical unit of a language, consisting of one word or several words, considered as an abstract unit, and applied to a family of words related by form or meaning.

A lexeme is the smallest or minimal unit of lexicon in a language that bears some “meaning.”

Ex. The lexeme play can take up many forms like play, playingplays, and played. All of these word forms have the same basic meaning (which is denoted by an action) and, hence, will be categorized under the same lexeme. 

14

MORPH

Any minimal meaningful form in a language, including morphemes and allomorphs.

Some morphs are grouped together as allomorphs of a morpheme.

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MORPHEME

The smallest linguistic signs. These signs (or pieces) CANNOT be broken down into smaller signs.

Ex. Unlikely consists of three morphemes: un, like and -ly.

Ex. Unladylike consists of three morphemes: un, lady, and like.

Ex. Repaired consists of two morphemes: repair and -ed.

Ex. Dogs consists of two morphemes: dog and -s.

English words are generally made up of relatively few morphemes.

 

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MORPHOPHONEMIC FORM

An abstract form postulated for phonological allomorphs that is operated on by morphophonemic rules to derive the phonological forms of the allomorphs.

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MORPHOPHONEMIC RULE

An explicit rule that accounts for the realization of a morpheme as phonological allomorphs.

18

NOUN

A part-of-speech made up of words that serve as the main lexical item in noun phrases, and in some languages show grammatical alternations for case, number and/or gender.

19

PREFIX

A type of bound morpheme that is attached to the beginning of the morpheme.

Ex. The bound morphemes un- and re- in English are prefixes, as in unhappy and reconstitute.

20

ROOT

The base form of a lexical item (morpheme, word) that cannot be further analyzed morphologically.

Ex. happy in unhappily

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SIMPLE WORDS

"The farmer kills the duckling."

Simple words: farm, kill, duck.

These simple words have NO internal structure.

No smaller part of these words (farm, kill, duck) has a meaning.

These words are called morphemes.

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STEM

A word form (a root, root plus derivational affixes, or compound of roots) to which inflectional affixes are attached.

23

SUFFIX

A type of bound morpheme that attaches to the ends of words.

Ex. -ed of finished

24

SUPPLETION

Or suppletive forms.

Allomorphs of a morpheme that are not phonologically related.

Ex. The irregular past tense went of the verb go involves root suppletion.

25

TENSE

A grammatical category, usually marked in verbs, that indicates the relative time of occurrance of an event.

Ex. Past, present, future.

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VERB

A part-of-speech containing words that serve as the main lexical item in a verb phrase, and in some languages display grammatical categories like tense, aspect, mood. 

Verbs typically denote events, states, processes, happenings and so on.

Ex. Hit, sit, break.

27

WORD

A fundamental unit of grammer intuitively recognized by native speakers of a language.

This term is difficult to define, and is used in a variety of different ways in linguistics.

28

ZERO MORPHEME

A morpheme of allomorph of a morpheme that has no phonetic form.

Ex. In many languages the third person singular form of a bound pronomial is a zero.

Consider the plural morpheme –s in English. The plural morpheme is a suffix in English that gets attached to the root word (nouns) to make them plural. Hence,

cat + -s = cats

book + -s = books

Note that there can be variations in this form:

bus + -es = buses

child + -ren = children

In all these cases, however, we can clearly see a morphological form, which can be pronounced by the speakers, getting attached to the root word.

But if we take a word like sheep, we will see that the plural for this word will still be sheep and not sheeps.

sheep + -s(=Ø) = sheep

The word sheep gets attached to a null plural morpheme, which changes the meaning, but doesn’t get expressed phonologically. This means that although there is no change in pronunciation after addition of this morpheme to the root, it is changing its meaning to plural. The same is true for an instance of plural morpheme in a word like deer.

deer + -s(=Ø) = deer

The only means by which one can get the plural interpretation for such words is the syntactic environment and context.