Chapter 3 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Vocabulary Deck (28):
1

Polar Molecule

A polar molecule is one where opposite ends have opposite charges.

2

Cohesion

Cohesion is the way that water molecules stick to one another. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding contributes to the transport of water and dissolved nutrients against gravity in plants.

3

Adhesion

Adhesion is the clinging of one substance to a another, such as the adhesion of water to the wall of the cells. This helps counter the downward pull of gravity.

4

Surface Tension

Surface tension is how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.

5

Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Anything that moves has kinetic energy.

6

Heat

Heat is the measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter.

7

Temperature

Temperature measures the intensity of heat due to the AVERAGE kinetic energy of the molecules.

8

Celsius scale

Used to indicate temperature.
*0 Degrees Celsius= freezing water
*100 Degrees Celsius= boiling water

9

calorie(cal)

The unit calorie is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

10

kilocalorie(kcal)

The unit kilocalorie is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius.

11

Specific Heat

The specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost in order to change the substance's temperature by 1 degree Celsius.

12

Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative cooling is when the "hottest" molecules leave as gas(highest kinetic energy), causing the other molecule to cool down.

13

Solution

A liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is a solution.

14

Hydrophilic

Anything that is hydrophilic has an affinity for water(ionic or polar).

15

Hydrophobic

Substances that repel water are hydrophobic(non polar or non-ionic)

16

Solute

The substance that is dissolved is the solute.

17

Solvent

The dissolving agent is the solvent.

18

Aqueous Solution

In an aqueous solution, the water is the solvent.

19

mole

Represents an exact number of objects
*6.02 X 10^23

20

Molecular Weight

Molecular weight is the ratio of the average mass of one molecule of an element(or compound) to 1/12 the mass of the C12 atom.

21

Hydrogen Ion

A single proton with a charge of +1.(H+1)

22

Molarity

The number of moles of solute per liter of solution.

23

Hydroxide Ion

A water molecule that lost a proton.(OH-)

24

Acid

A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.

25

Base

A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.

26

Buffer

Buffers are substances that minimize changes in the concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution.

27

pH Scale

The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm(base 10) of the hydrogen ion concentration.

28

Acid Precipitation

Acid Precipitation refers to rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.6. Usually, uncontaminated rain is slightly acidic due to the formation of carbon dioxide with water.
*Caused by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides