Chapter 4 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocabulary Deck (19):
1

Organic Chemistry

The branch of chemistry that specializes in carbon.

2

Hydrocarbon

A molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.

3

Isomer

Compounds that have the same elements, but different structures, and hence, different properties.

4

Structural Isomer

Structural isomers vary differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. (Pentane C5H12)

5

Geometric Isomer
X X
\ /
C = C
/ \
H H

Geometric isomers have the same covalent partnerships, are different in their spatial arrangements. Because of the inflexibility of double bonds, atoms cannot rotate.

6

Enantiomer

Enantiomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another. However, like your right and left hand, they do not fit perfectly together. In medicine, one will be effective, and the other may cause side effects.

7

Functional Group

A functional group can be viewed as an attachment to replace on or more of the hydrogens bonded to the carbon skeleton.

8

Hydroxyl Group( -----OH)

A hydroxyl group is a hydrogen and oxygen bonded together and bonded to the carbon skeleton of an organic molecule.

9

Alcohol

Usually end in -ol(Ethanol)

10

Carbonyl Group(>CO)

Consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.

11

Aldehydes

If the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton

12

Keytones

If the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton

13

Carboxyl Group( -----COOH)

When an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group.

14

Carboxylic Acid

Also called organic acids

15

Amino Group(---NH2)

Consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton.

16

Amine

Glycine is an example of an amine.

17

Sulfhydryl Group(----SH)

Consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen.

18

Thiol

Ethanethiol is an example of a thiol.

19

Phosphate Group

A phosphorus atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms, one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton.