Flashcards in Chapter 4 Vocabulary Deck (19):
The branch of chemistry that specializes in carbon.
A molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
Compounds that have the same elements, but different structures, and hence, different properties.
Structural isomers vary differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. (Pentane C5H12)
C = C
Geometric isomers have the same covalent partnerships, are different in their spatial arrangements. Because of the inflexibility of double bonds, atoms cannot rotate.
Enantiomers are molecules that are mirror images of one another. However, like your right and left hand, they do not fit perfectly together. In medicine, one will be effective, and the other may cause side effects.
A functional group can be viewed as an attachment to replace on or more of the hydrogens bonded to the carbon skeleton.
Hydroxyl Group( -----OH)
A hydroxyl group is a hydrogen and oxygen bonded together and bonded to the carbon skeleton of an organic molecule.
Usually end in -ol(Ethanol)
Consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.
If the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
If the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
Carboxyl Group( -----COOH)
When an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
Also called organic acids
Consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton.
Glycine is an example of an amine.
Consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen.
Ethanethiol is an example of a thiol.