Chapter 31 - Confronting Global and National Dilemmas, 1989-present Flashcards Preview

AP U.S. History > Chapter 31 - Confronting Global and National Dilemmas, 1989-present > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 31 - Confronting Global and National Dilemmas, 1989-present Deck (33):
1

Al Qaeda

network of radical Islamic terrorists organized by Osama bin Laden - called for holy war against Americans and responsible for 9/11 attacks

2

globalization

spread of political, cultural, and economic influences and connections among countries, businesses, and individuals around the world through trade, immigration, communication, and other means

3

World Trade Organization (WTO)

international economic body established n 1995 to enforce substantial tariff and import quota reductions

4

Group of Eight (G8)

international organization of the leading capitalist industrial nations: U.S., Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Russia

5

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

1993 treaty that eliminated all tariffs and trade barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico

6

multinational corporations

corporations with offices and factories in multiple countries, which expanded to find new markets and cheaper sources of labor

7

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)

decentralized computer network developed in the late 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense in conjunction with MIT (the internet eventually grew from ARPANET)

8

World Wide Web

collection of interlinked computer servers that debuted in 1991, allowing access to millions of documents, pictures, and other materials

9

culture war

long-standing political struggle between religious traditionalists and secular liberals

10

Immigration and Nationality Act

1965 law that eliminated discriminatory 1924 quotas, established a higher limit on total immigration, included provisions to ease entry of immigrants, and allowed immediate family members of legal U.S. residents to be admitted outside of the total numerical limit

11

multiculturalism

promotion of diversity in gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and sexual preference

12

Proposition 209

proposition approved by California voters in 1996 that outlawed affirmative action in state employment and public education

13

Operation Rescue

movement founded by religious activist Randall Terry in 1987 that mounted protests outside abortion clinics and harassed their staff and clients

14

Defense of Marriage Act

law enacted by Congress in 1998 that allowed states to refuse to recognize gay marriages or civil unions formed in other jurisdictions

15

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services

1989 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the authority of state governments to limit the use of public funds and facilities for abortions

16

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey

1992 Supreme Court case that upheld a law requiring a 24-hour waiting period prior to abortion

17

Lawrence v. Texas

2003 landmark decision by the Supreme Court that limited the power of states to prohibit private homosexual activity between consenting adults

18

Contract with America

initiatives by Newt Gingrich of Georgia for significant tax cuts, reductions in welfare programs, anticrime measures, and cutbacks in federal regulations

19

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act

legislation signed by President Bill Clinton which provided grants to states to assist the poor and which limited welfare payments to two years, with a lifetime maximum of five years

20

Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act

Bush's 2001 legislation that slashed income tax rates, extended the earned income credit for the poor, and market the estate tax to be phased out by 2010

21

USA PATRIOT Act

2001 law that gave the government new powers to monitor suspected terrorists and their associates, including the ability to access personal information

22

Abu Ghraib prison

prison near Baghdad, Iraq where American guards were photographed during the Iraq War abusing and torturing suspected insurgents

23

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

economic stimulus bill passed in 2009 (in response to the Great Recession) that provided $787 billion to state and local government for schools, hospitals, and transportation projects

24

Tea Party

set of far-right opposition groups that emerged during Obama's first term and gave voice to exterme individualism and antigovernment sentiment

25

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

2010 healthcare reform bill that established nearly universal health insurance by providing subsidies and compelling larger businesses to offer coverage to employees

26

Osama bin Laden

leader of Al Qaeda

27

Bill Clinton

42nd president

28

Hillary Rodham Clinton

former First Lady and Secretary of State; 2016 presidential candidate

29

Newt Gingrich

Georgia representative responsible for Contract with America initiatives

30

Monica Lewinsky

former White House intern who had an affair with Bill Clinton

31

George W. Bush

43rd president

32

Saddam Hussein

president of Iraq during 9/11 attacks

33

Barack Obama

44th president and first African American president

Decks in AP U.S. History Class (31):