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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (52)
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1
Q

Anorexia

A

lack or loss of appetite for food (as a medical condition)

2
Q

Antipruritic

A

used to relieve itching

3
Q

Antipyretic

A

used to prevent or reduce fever

4
Q

Arthralgia

A

joint stiffness

5
Q

Bacteremia

A

the presence of viable bacteria in the circulating blood

6
Q

Enanthems

A

is a rash (small spots) on the mucous membranes

7
Q

Exanthems

A

is a rash or eruption on the skin

8
Q

Leukopenia

A

a decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes) in your blood

9
Q

Myalgia

A

muscle aches and pain

10
Q

Nosocomial

A

(of a disease) originating in a hospital

11
Q

Orchitis

A

an inflammation of one or both testicles

12
Q

Rhinitis

A

when a reaction occurs that causes nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, and itching

13
Q

Scotomata

A

a partial loss of vision or blind spot in an otherwise normal visual field

14
Q

Sepsis

A

the body’s extreme response to an infection

15
Q

Spirochete

A

a flexible spirally twisted bacterium, especially one that causes syphilis

16
Q

Compare and contrast infectious and communicable diseases

A

Infectious is an infection and not all infections are communicable

communicable are infectious

17
Q

Recall at least five reasons for the surge in new infectious and communicable diseases.

A

Microbial adaptation and change

Human susceptibility to infection

Climate and weather

Changing ecosystems

Human demographics and behavior

18
Q

Identify and define emerging and reemerging infectious diseases.

A

when the incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future

19
Q

Explain the health crisis from antimicrobial resistance

A

occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death

20
Q

Identify the peculiar nature of the H1N1 virus

A

It has DNA typical to avian, swine, and human viruses

21
Q

Discuss the route of food-borne infection caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7

A

consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat products, raw milk, and contaminated raw vegetables and sprouts

22
Q

Summarize the prognosis of E. coli O157:H7.

A

Most healthy adults recover from E. coli illness within a week

23
Q

Identify the etiology and three stages of Lyme disease.

A

Stage 1 signs include a rash called erythema chronicum migrans (ECM), which appears at the site of the bite and may resemble a bull’s eye.

Stage 2 symptoms affect the central nervous system, causing such diverse problems as meningitis, nerve damage, and facial palsy.

Stage 3 symptoms include chronic arthritis and continuing neurological problems

24
Q

Discuss the infectious characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

A

SARS is caused by a virus known as SARS-associated coronavirus (ICD-10: B97.21). Studies showed the virus survived for at least 24 hours on a plastic surface at room temperature and that the microbe remained viable for as long as 4 days in human waste

25
Q

Assess the current threat of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

A

63 cases of MERS were reported in Saudi Arabia, with a total of 126 deaths. A total of 184 cases of MERS, including 33 deaths have been reported in the Republic of Korea.

26
Q

Describe the six infectious diseases that could be used as possible weapons.

A

Anthrax

Botulism

Bubonic plague

Smallpox

Tularemia

Viral Hermorrhagic fevers

27
Q

Explain the four characteristics of Category A diseases as potential weapons.

A

(1) They can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person
(2) they result in high mortality rates and present a potential major public health threat
(3) they might cause public panic and social disruption
(4) they require special action for public health preparedness.

28
Q

Compare/contrast the three forms of anthrax.

A

Cutaneous anthrax · Inhalation anthrax · Gastrointestinal anthrax ·

29
Q

Recall how botulism has been used in warfare.

A

The Second World War was a crucial period for the first attempts to weaponize this toxin

30
Q

List the signs/symptoms of pneumonic plague.

A

fever, headache, weakness, and rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and sometimes bloody or watery sputum

31
Q

Discuss the pros and cons of keeping the smallpox virus.

A

smallpox is needed to finish research and development on vaccines and drugs that could fight a future outbreak

Can be used as a weapon

32
Q

Explain the treatment protocol for tularemia.

A

Antibiotics

33
Q

Identify the four main groups of viral hemorrhagic fevers.

A

Arenaviruses
Filoviruses
Bunyaviruses
Flaviviruses

34
Q

Summarize the treatment for hemorrhagic fevers.

A

Treatment is largely supportive

35
Q

Restate the preventative methods for West Nile virus.

A
  • Use an insect repellant that contains DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) when going outside at dawn or dusk. DEET can be used safely for several weeks. Adults may use repellents that contain 30% to 35% DEET; children should use a maximum of 10%, and infants and pregnant women should not use DEET at all.
  • Wear light, long-sleeved shirts and long pants for protection from mosquito bites.
  • Empty any standing water that can become a breeding ground for mosquitoes.
  • Install window and door screens.
36
Q

Recall the etiology of malaria and the threat to travelers.

A

Once a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, parasites travel to the liver, where they multiply and change into another form of parasite called merozoites

37
Q

Discuss alternative therapies for the treatment of colds and influenza.

A

Vitamin c, zinc, priobiotics

38
Q

Recall the treatment of influenza.

A

bed rest, adequate fluid intake, analgesics, and antipyretics

39
Q

Summarize the possible prognosis of MRSA.

A

can be difficult to treat and can progress to life-threatening blood or bone infections, lung infections, or skin/tissue infections

40
Q

List two major criteria used to diagnose chronic fatigue syndrome.

A

(1) for at least 6 months that does not resolve with bed rest
(2) that is severe enough to reduce daily activity by at least 50%

41
Q

Discuss the etiology of HIV/AIDS.

A

predominantly infects cells called T4 lymphocytes (T4-helper cells), which are critical to the operation of the body’s immune system

42
Q

Recall the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS in the world.

A

35M

43
Q

Compare/contrast the common infectious and communicable diseases of childhood and adolescence.

A

INFECTIOUS DIARRHEAL DISEASES

RUBEOLA (MEASLES)

RUBELLA (GERMAN MEASLES)

MUMPS

VARICELLA (CHICKENPOX)

ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM (FIFTH DISEASE)

PERTUSSIS (WHOOPING COUGH)

DIPHTHERIA

TETNUS

44
Q

Identify the etiology of infectious diarrheal diseases.

A

transmitted via the oral-fecal route and possibly via airborne respiratory droplets. Individuals have natural defenses to combat pathogens taken in while eating, including normal flora, gastric acid, intestinal motility, and cellular immunity

45
Q

Recall the etiology and incubation period of rubeola.

A

caused by the Morbillivirus rubeola virus through direct contact with infectious droplets and occasionally through the air. The virus has an incubation period of 10 to 20 days.

46
Q

Distinguish rubeola and rubella.

A

bumps vs patches

47
Q

Define the classic symptoms of mumps.

A

unilateral or bilateral swollen parotid glands

48
Q

Describe the treatment of varicella.

A

Isolation

Antihistamines

lotions

49
Q

Describe the infectious period of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease).

A

incubation period is generally 4 to 14 days but can be as long as 20 days

50
Q

Discuss the two stages of pertussis.

A

The catarrhal stage is marked by the gradual onset of coldlike symptoms—mild fever, running nose, dry cough, irritability, and anorexia.

The paroxysmal stage is marked by the onset of the classic cough, consisting of a series of several short, severe coughs in rapid succession followed by a slow, strained inspiration, during which a “whoop” (stridor) may be heard.

51
Q

Explain measures to prevent diphtheria.

A

Inoculation

52
Q

Outline preventive strategies for tetanus.

A

Wear protective clothing and clean wounds promptly