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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (15)
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At what articulations can sacrum become subluxated?

SI joint, lumbosacral joint


If the sacral plane line is not parallel to the femur head line what is your first thought?

Malformation of the sacrum


How would you confirm sacrum misalignment?

Check other bilateral points such as sacral foramina, etc


If you are wrong about sacrum misalignment what do you check next? What is the result?

Check for sacral inferiority
Results in PI-L or PI-R?


Describe the listing of sacrum?

Measure the right side of sacrum from S2 to the most lateral part and measure the left side of the sacrum from S2 to the most lateral part


Requirements for listing sacrum?

A difference of 7mm is significant, but if you have a difference of 4-6mm with all vertebrae up to C2 following sacral rotation and there are no scolioses present sacrum may be listed


How do you measure for sacral inferiority?

Roll your parallel to the highest sacral point from the femur head line and strike a line. If this coincides with the posteriorly rotated side then you have sacral inferiority


When do you adjust sacrum to ilium?

Sacrum to ilium= If you have an ASIN, ASEX with AS major, or PIIN with IN major
Ilium to sacrum= If you have a PIEX, PIIN with PI major, or ASEX with EX major


Differentiate between base posterior and posterior L5?

Sacrum will be posterior to the body of L5 (George's Line) and you will have a posterior open wedge


Who is susceptible to posterior sacral base/base posterior?

Preadolescent whose articular processes haven't completely ossified


Differentiate between base posterior and spondylo at L5?

BP will be the only posterior segement and the lumbars will stand on top of L5. An L5 spondylo will slip forward from sacrum and L4


What film do you use to determine posteriority of sacral base?



With a spondylo at L5 can you expect total realignment?

It is rarely accomplished, NEVER adjust L4 with an L5 spondylo


How does coccyx usually misalign?

Usually anterior, but may have lateral deviation


When listing laterality of coccyx do you list the wedge or apex direction?

Listing (A-L= left is apex)