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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (18):
1

Nonverbal behaviour

important source of information
ex: facial expression, tone of voice, gestures, body position, use of touch, eye gaze

2

Uses of nonverbal behaviour

express emotion, convey attitude, communicate personality traits, facilitate verbal communication, repeat or complement spoken message, substitute for spoken messages

3

Darwin's universality hypothesis

- primary emotions conveyed by the face are encoded and decoded across all humans
- Species specific, not culture specific

STUDY:
Read story to Fore tribe and ask to identify emotions through facial expressions; results same as in west
(6 basic emotions)

4

Research findings on facial expressions

- Happiness is most easily recognizable
- Quicker to decode anger in males and happiness in females
- We're better at matching than naming
- more context, better accuracy (STUDY: took same neutral photo and preceded it with either happy or sad photo; people said opposite of what they just saw; Ex: if first saw happy then saw neutral, they said neutral looks sad; because context is changed - compared to the happy one she looks sad…compared to the sad one she looks happy

5

Accuracy of identifying facial expressions

- Accuracy can be decreased because:
1) affect blends
2) display rules (culturally based; ex men don't cry; women should always be happy)
3) gender differences

6

Cultural emblems

non-verbal gestures that have a well-established meaning in a given culture

7

Implicit personality theories

- type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together (Ex: many people think if someone is kind then they're also generous)
- vary across cultures and are passed from generation to generation
- toss up between accuracy and economy: it's quick/easy but less accurate (Ex: beauty myth – we tend to think ppl have a bunch of positive qualities when they’re attractive and opposite)
- EX: western have an artistic IPT and Chinese culture have a Shi Gu IPT and when given texts in either language to bilingual Chinese/English they will give the IPT that is in the culture of the language

8

Causal attributions

-Explanations for own behaviour or behaviour of others
- Internal (personal factors) or external (situational factors)
- Tend to explain personal behaviour situational, but others personal

9

Our relationship with others because of causal attributions

- Likely more forgiving and understanding of others when we make external attributions
o Study: when happy in marriage; partners more willing to attribute good behaviour to internal causes, and bad behaviour to external causes; when unhappy; partners more willing to attribute good behaviour to external causes, and bad behaviour to internal causes

10

Covariational model

- Compare person’s behaviour across situations and individuals to see how much it varies from the current behaviour
o Consensus: extent to which others behave in same manner (Ex: see boss yelling at co-worker; is it just your boss that gets mad at this person? Or do others also?)
o Distinctiveness: extent to which the behaviour is unique to this person/situation (ex: does the boss yell at everyone? Or just this one person?)
o Consistency: extent to which behaviour is repeated (ex: is the boss yelling at the co-worker in this situation only? Or have you seen them yell at different situation before)

- Internal: low Consensus and distinct, high consistency
- External: all high.
- We rely heavier on consistency and distinctiveness
- Information on all three is NOT necessary; we fill in the blanks

11

Fundamental attribution error

- overemphasis on personality and underestimation of social factors
- corresponding bias: tend to infer that people's behaviour matches their personality

ex: Fidel Castro study – ppl were forced to write either a pro castro or anti castro essay – participants read the essays and told that the people writing the essays didn’t have a choice for pro or against castro; then asked “what do you think the author’s actual stance is?” because of correspondence bias people believed that if someone wrote pro-castro they really were pro-castro and vice versa
- EX: Study: greeted by good looking lab assistant and given note written by lab assistant; and told that the lab assistant was told to write something nice; when asked if they thought the lab assistant was nice most said yes even though they knew he/she was forced to write something nice

12

Perceptual salience

- information that is the focus of people's attention; people tend to overestimate the causal role of perceptually salient information
ex: study where observers sit around two discussing people in a way where they can only see one or both people; people said the one they were facing was more active and dominated the debate; those who could see both said they were equally dominating

13

Actor/Observer Difference

- As actors we focus on situations around us
- As observers we focus on actors
- Same event = internal attribution for observer, and external attribution for actor

14

Cultural differences in attributions

- Western: individual freedom and autonomy – dispositional explanations favoured
- Collectivist (often Eastern): group membership, interdependence, and conformity to group norms – situational explanations favoured
- Differences in fundamental attribution error?

15

Attributions and self-esteeem

Successes attributed internally
Failures attributed externally

This causes issues:
- Own actions are rational and defensible
- Other’s actions are unreasonable and unjustified
- Overestimate own contribution or involvement when working with others

16

Defensive attributions

- explanations for behaviour that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
- Examples: Unrealistic optimism
- Good things are more likely to happen to us than to our peers and bad things less likely to happen to us rather than other
• Ex: breast cancer; AIDS; 6-8 / 10 women are likely to get breast cancer; aware of this but tend to think we’re not in that category
• Winning lottery, motorcyclists, relationship outcomes

17

Belief in a just world

- belief that bad things happen to bad people and good things to good people (form of defensive attribution)
- can cause us to blame the victim

18

First impressions

- notoriously wrong
- why? point of focus is us, selective attention, values over competence, negativity effect