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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (15):

problems with classical liberalism

the industrial revolution and laissez-faire capitalism created a society where wealth and efficiency became the primary goal\
governments did not intervene to protect workers
new ideologies emerged


luddism (luddites)

a group of people who protested the changes to the economy brought on by the industrial revolution
they rejected the replacement of skilled workers with technology and formed army or redressers in 1811
6 year period- broke into factories-destroyed over 200 machinery, attacked business owners
government responded by sending troops to protect factories and punished machine breaking with death



a working class movement in Britain (1838-1848)
6 goals: universal suffrage for all men over 21, equal sized electoral districts, voting by secret ballot, an end to the need for property qualifications for parliament, pay for members of parliament, annual election
1832-vote had been extended to some middle class men but not working class
thought that the right to vote was the key to many solutions for the working class
their reforms were later adopted by the parliament in 1867 and 1884, after many previous rejections


classical conservatism

people who advocate returning to a previous state of affairs are often considered reactionary "on the right"
society is an organic whole that should be structured in a hierarchical fashion with those best suited to leadership at the top because people do not have the same abilities
governments should be chosen by a limited electorate with special rights, responsibilities and privileges
leaders should be humanitarian- role includes the responsibility to care for the welfare of others
stability of society will be achieved through law and order and the maintenance of the customs and traditions that bind society together


welfare capitalism

initiatives by industrialists to provide non-monetary rewards to workers for their loyalty and stave of labour unions
(classical liberal economic system combined with a government that used legislation to give workers protection such as limited working hours and a minimum wage, and a safety net with features like pensions and medical insurance)
laissez-faire critics argued that workers were exploited
factory acts- progressively improved working conditions for workers( decreased hours, regulate age of child workers, regulate hours that woman and children work)
regulations late known as labour standards


labour standards and unions

workers began to form unions
if all workers in one particular trade united, they could bargain collectively for better hours and wages and threaten to go on strike if needs were not met
unions threatened to undermine the capitalist's control of the workplace
unions prevailed


Theodore Roosevelt Square Deal

president 19901-1909
reformer who wanted to curb excesses of laissez-faire capitalism
square deal-signify that both labour and capitalism must be treated fairly
founded a new political party in his second term called the National Progressive Party, new platform called progressivism


universal suffrage (classical to modern)

classical liberalism proclaimed the equality of men but in reality only certain men were equal
the right to vote was one of the most obvious examples
men had own a certain amount of property or pay a certain amount of money for the right to vote
1867-1919 the classical liberal idea evolved into a modern liberal concept



men and woman are to be treated equally in all respects
the idea that women are equal stems from the enlightenment period
women of all classes worked hard, poorly paid labour in factories
women began to see that they could contribute to society in more significant ways
1860s suffrages began to argue for the right to vote
gained the right to vote, led to more equality for women in society
still not equal in the world today



an ideology that believes that resources should be controlled by the public for the benefit of everyone in society and not by the private interests for the benefit of private owners and investors
economic equality among citizens by providing income security for all through guaranteed employment and guaranteed living standards
cooperation over completion
high government involvement
believe society should be classless
the state should direct the economy to achieve equality for all citizens


utopian (utopia)

refers to imaginary, perfect world
humanitarians who advocated an end to the appalling conditions of the average worker in the industrial capitalist countries of the time
utopian socialists did not intend to overthrow society altogether, but just modify classical liberalism


New lanark

model for Owen's socialist ideas
education became the key-infants cared for while parents went to work, children went to school until 10, shorter work days for children, free medical care, concerts, dancing
living conditions addressed- streets were paved and regularly cleaned, company shops with reasonable prices, fines imposed for disruptive behaviour



radical form of socialism, called scientific socialism or communism
history was all about class struggle, and was the only way to overthrow capitalism
characterised by a command economy where the state makes all the economic decisions


Early democratic socialism

believed that political, economic and social change could be done without revolution
wanted change through elections and reform
key industries become publicly owned
government would support labour rights and provide social programs
embraces some aspect of Marxism and liberalism


Examples of democratic socialism

USA- affirmative action-preferential treatment of those who have previously faced discrimination, in order to increase their presence in education and the workplace
Canada-creation of the co-operative commonwealth federation (ccf) 1932, the quiet revolution in Quebec in 1960
Sweden-cradle to the grave- high levels of social programs=high levels of taxation
both Sweden and Canada use progressive taxation to achieve economic equality