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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (27)
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1

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that exhibits wave light behavior as it travels through space

2

electromagnetic spectrum

all forms of electromagnetic radiation

3

wavelength

the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves.

4

Frequency

the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second.

5

photoelectric effect

refers to the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal.

6

Quuantum

the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.

7

photon

a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy.

8

Ground State

lowest energy state of an atom.

9

excited state

when a atom has a higher potential energy than its ground state

10

line-emission spetrum

specific frequencies emitted by the element.

11

continuous spectrum

emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation

12

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle

13

Quantum theory

describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles.

14

orbital

a three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron.

15

Quantum numbers

specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals

16

Principal quantum numbers

symbolized by "n" indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron

17

Angular momentum quantum number

symbolized by 'l' indicates the shape of an orbital

18

manetic quantum number

symbolized by 'm'indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus.

19

Spin quantum number

only 2 possible values (+1/2, -1/2) indicates the 2 fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital.

20

electron configuration

the arrangement of electrons in an atom

21

aufbau principle

an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it.

22

Pauli extension principle

no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.

23

Hund's rule

orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron

24

highest occupied level

the electron containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number.

25

inner-shell electron

electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level.

26

noble gases

the group 18 elements

27

noble gas configuration

the electron configuration of a noble gas