Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (41):
What is the Autonomic Nervous system divided into?
What cranial nerves are associated with the PANS?
III Oculomotor Nerve
VII Facial nerve
IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve
X Vagus nerve
Sacral (S2-S4) segments of spinal cord
Thoracic (T1) to lumbar (L2)
What are some of the muscles that the PANS affect
What are some of the muscles that the SANS affect?
What is Cholinergic also called?
These mimic the PANS
Direct acting (cholinergic)
Acts like acetylcholine at receptor sites
Indirect acting (cholinergic)
Causes increase in amount of acetylcholine indirectly
Inhibits AChE ---> Breaks down ACh
Cardiovascular effects from cholinergic direct effects
A decrease in cardiac output is associated with these agents, bradycardia, and decrease in BP
GI effects (cholinergic)
Excite smooth muscles of the GI tract (Diarrhea)
Adverse reactions of cholinergic agents
Contraindications of cholinergic agents
GI or urinary tract obstruction
Severe cardiac disease
How is xerostomia treated?
With pilocarpine (Salagen)
5 mg tablet tid
What is Anticholinergic also called?
What does anticholinergic agents do ?
*They are cholinergic blocking agents
*Prevents ACh action at postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings
*Block ACh action on smooth muscle, glandular tissue, and the heart
What happens if you increase drug penetration in CNS
You increase the chance of CNS side effects
Anticholinergic effects on exocrine glands
Reduce the flow and volume of secretions
Anticholinergic effects on smooth muscles
*Relax smooth muscle in respiratory tract
*Relax smooth muscle in GI tract
Anticholinergic effects on the eye
Cycloplegia (paralized cillary muscles)
Anticholinergic effects on the cardiovascular
*Large doses produce vagal blockade > tachycardia
*Small doses, bradycardia predominates
Anticholinergic adverse reactions
Urinary and gastrointestinal stasis
Signs of CNS excitation
Contraindications of anticholinergic agents
Urinary obstruction or retention
Uses of anticholinergic agents
Treatment of GI disorders
Reduction of Parkinson like movements
What are some considerations a Dental Hygenist must make when having a patient on anticholinergic agents?
Communication between nerves or between nerves and effector tissue takes plase by the release of a chemical neurotransmitters across synaptic cleft
Between preganglionic and postganglionic nerves
Between postganglionic nerves and the effector tissues
PANS: ACh, cholinergic, muscarnic
SANS: NE, adrenergic
In the autonomic nervous system, the preganglionic neuron originates in the __________ and passes out to form the ganglia at the __________ with the postganglionic neuron. The postganglionic neuron originates in the __________ and innervates the __________.
central nervous system, ganglia, synapse, effector organ
A drug that has the suffix __________ has the same action as an agonist.
What is the principal neurotransmitter of the PANS?
The action of the released acetylcholine is terminated by hydrolysis by what enzyme
The two components of the ANS, the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (SANS) and the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (PANS) together control regulation of which bodily functions?
Regulation of blood pressure and heart rate and smooth muscles of the gut and bronchi
A single preganglionic fiber often synapses with what?
numerous postganglionic neurons to produce a diffuse effect
When the sympathetic autonomic nervous system is stimulated, the __________ releases epinephrine and norepinephrine, acting as a large sympathetic ganglion.
What is the preganglionic neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?
What are the primary postsynaptic neurotransmitters for the sympathetic nervous system?