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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (41):
1

What is the Autonomic Nervous system divided into?

Parasympathetic
Sympathetic

2

Afferent

Sensory

3

Efferent

Motor

4

What cranial nerves are associated with the PANS?

III Oculomotor Nerve
VII Facial nerve
IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve
X Vagus nerve
Sacral (S2-S4) segments of spinal cord

5

Thoracic (T1) to lumbar (L2)
Adrenal medulla

SANS

6

What are some of the muscles that the PANS affect

Smooth mucles
Cardiac muscles
Glands

7

What are some of the muscles that the SANS affect?

Heart
Blood vessels
Skeletal muscles

8

What is Cholinergic also called?

Parasympathomimetic agents

9

These mimic the PANS

Cholinergic (Parasympathomimetic)

10

Direct acting (cholinergic)

Acts like acetylcholine at receptor sites

11

Indirect acting (cholinergic)

Causes increase in amount of acetylcholine indirectly
Inhibits AChE ---> Breaks down ACh

12

Cardiovascular effects from cholinergic direct effects

A decrease in cardiac output is associated with these agents, bradycardia, and decrease in BP

13

GI effects (cholinergic)

Excite smooth muscles of the GI tract (Diarrhea)

14

Adverse reactions of cholinergic agents

S= Salivation
L= Lacrimation
U= Urination
D= Defecation

15

Contraindications of cholinergic agents

Bronchial asthma
Hyperthyrodism
GI or urinary tract obstruction
Severe cardiac disease
Peptic ulcer

16

How is xerostomia treated?

With pilocarpine (Salagen)
5 mg tablet tid

17

What is Anticholinergic also called?

Parasympatholytic agents

18

What does anticholinergic agents do ?

*They are cholinergic blocking agents
*Prevents ACh action at postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings
*Block ACh action on smooth muscle, glandular tissue, and the heart

19

Antimuscarnic agents

anticholinergic agents

20

What happens if you increase drug penetration in CNS

You increase the chance of CNS side effects

21

Anticholinergic effects on exocrine glands

Reduce the flow and volume of secretions

22

Anticholinergic effects on smooth muscles

*Relax smooth muscle in respiratory tract
*Relax smooth muscle in GI tract
*Spasmolytic agents

23

Anticholinergic effects on the eye

Mydriasis (dialation)
Cycloplegia (paralized cillary muscles)

24

Anticholinergic effects on the cardiovascular

*Large doses produce vagal blockade > tachycardia
*Small doses, bradycardia predominates

25

Anticholinergic adverse reactions

Xerostomia
Blurred vision
Photophobia
Tachycardia
Fever
Urinary and gastrointestinal stasis
Hyperpyrexia
Signs of CNS excitation

26

Contraindications of anticholinergic agents

Glaucoma
Prostatic hypertrophy
Intestinal obstruction
Urinary obstruction or retention
Cardiovascular disease

27

Uses of anticholinergic agents

Postoperative medication
Treatment of GI disorders
Ophthalmologic examination
Reduction of Parkinson like movements
Motion sickness

28

What are some considerations a Dental Hygenist must make when having a patient on anticholinergic agents?

Xerostomia
Tachycardia
Sedation

29

Neurotransmitters

Communication between nerves or between nerves and effector tissue takes plase by the release of a chemical neurotransmitters across synaptic cleft

30

Between preganglionic and postganglionic nerves

ACh
Cholinergic
Nicotinic

31

Between postganglionic nerves and the effector tissues

PANS: ACh, cholinergic, muscarnic
SANS: NE, adrenergic

32

In the autonomic nervous system, the preganglionic neuron originates in the __________ and passes out to form the ganglia at the __________ with the postganglionic neuron. The postganglionic neuron originates in the __________ and innervates the __________.

central nervous system, ganglia, synapse, effector organ

33

A drug that has the suffix __________ has the same action as an agonist.

-mimetic

34

What is the principal neurotransmitter of the PANS?

Acetylcholine

35

The action of the released acetylcholine is terminated by hydrolysis by what enzyme

Acetylcholinesterase

36

The two components of the ANS, the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (SANS) and the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (PANS) together control regulation of which bodily functions?

Regulation of blood pressure and heart rate and smooth muscles of the gut and bronchi

37

A single preganglionic fiber often synapses with what?

numerous postganglionic neurons to produce a diffuse effect

38

When the sympathetic autonomic nervous system is stimulated, the __________ releases epinephrine and norepinephrine, acting as a large sympathetic ganglion.

Adrenal Medulla

39

What is the preganglionic neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

40

What are the primary postsynaptic neurotransmitters for the sympathetic nervous system?

Norepinephrine/epinephrine

41

Which naturally occurring cholinergic agents is given to stimulate saliva flow?

Pilocarpine