Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (48):
Amounts of substances in a chemical reaction are considered what?
The stoichiometric factor can be used as a mole ratio relating moles of one substance, to ________ of another.
What is the amount of a product that is “theoretically” possible to obtain?
The amount of a product actually obtained in an experiment is what?
You can’t calculate the _________ yield.
What is the percent yield equation?
Actual yield/Theoretical yield x 100
The amount of absolute in a solution is given by its _____________.
What is the molarity equation?
Moles of solute/Liters of solution
What equation do we use for dilution?
M(initial) x V(initial) = M(final) x V(final)
Reactions of Ionic compounds that take place in water are what?
How do we know ions are present in aqueous solutions?
The solutions conduct electricity (called electrolytes)
HCl, KMnO4, MgCl2, and NaCl are all examples of what?
Acetic acid ionizes only to a small extent so it is a _________ electrolyte.
Compounds in the reaction are written as if the cations and anions of the compound are together, even though they may be dissociated as ions is considered what?
A molecular equation
In a complete ionic equation compounds which are dissociated are written as _________ ions.
To write the net ionic equation cancel the __________ ions in the compounds.
Ions that do not participate in the reaction are what?
Spectator ions can be found in exactly the same form on _________ sides of the chemical equation.
Precipitation reactions produce an ___________ salt.
A precipitation reaction is one type of __________ reaction.
The anions exchange places between cations in ___________ reactions.
The driving force in a precipitation reaction is the formation of an ____________ compound.
Arrhenius acids produce ______ in water.
Arrhenius bases produce ______ in water.
Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a __________.
Brønsted-Lowry base accepts a __________.
Strong acids and bases ionize completely in __________. They are strong electrolytes.
Weak acids and bases only ___________ ionize in water. They are weak electrolytes.
Acid-based reactions are also called _______________ reactions.
What is the driving force in acid-based (neutralization) reactions?
Formation of water
What is the net ionic equation for all reactions of soluble strong acids and bases?
(OH-) + (H+) ——> H2O
What are the products of an acid-based reaction?
Water and a salt
The exception to the H2O production in a neutralization reaction is when _______ reacts with an acid.
Gas-forming reactions come from a metal carbonate reacting with an _________.
Carbonic acid is unstable and forms ______ and ______.
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions involve the transfer of ___________ from one substance to another.
In a redox reaction if you lose electrons it’s ___________.
In a redox reaction if you gain electrons it’s a _____________.
Redox reactions are characterized by electron transfer between electron __________ and electron __________.
An electron transfer leads to an increase in the oxidation number of one element = ____________.
An electron transfer leads to a decrease in the oxidation number of another element = _____________.
The electric charge an element appears to have when electrons are counted by some arbitrary rules are what?
Each atom in a free element has an oxidation number of _______.
In simple ions, the oxidation number is equal to the ___________ on the ion.
Oxygen has an oxidation number of ______.
The oxidation number of hydrogen is _____.
The algebraic sum of oxidation numbers equals _____ for a neutral compound.