Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (48):
1

Amounts of substances in a chemical reaction are considered what?

Reaction Stoichiometry

2

The stoichiometric factor can be used as a mole ratio relating moles of one substance, to ________ of another.

Moles

3

What is the amount of a product that is “theoretically” possible to obtain?

Theoretical yield

4

The amount of a product actually obtained in an experiment is what?

Actual yield

5

You can’t calculate the _________ yield.

Actual

6

What is the percent yield equation?

Actual yield/Theoretical yield x 100

7

The amount of absolute in a solution is given by its _____________.

Concentration

8

What is the molarity equation?

Moles of solute/Liters of solution

9

What equation do we use for dilution?

M(initial) x V(initial) = M(final) x V(final)

10

Reactions of Ionic compounds that take place in water are what?

Aqueous solution

11

How do we know ions are present in aqueous solutions?

The solutions conduct electricity (called electrolytes)

12

HCl, KMnO4, MgCl2, and NaCl are all examples of what?

Strong electrolytes

13

Acetic acid ionizes only to a small extent so it is a _________ electrolyte.

Weak

14

Compounds in the reaction are written as if the cations and anions of the compound are together, even though they may be dissociated as ions is considered what?

A molecular equation

15

In a complete ionic equation compounds which are dissociated are written as _________ ions.

Separate

16

To write the net ionic equation cancel the __________ ions in the compounds.

Spectator

17

Ions that do not participate in the reaction are what?

Spectator ions

18

Spectator ions can be found in exactly the same form on _________ sides of the chemical equation.

Both

19

Precipitation reactions produce an ___________ salt.

Insoluble

20

A precipitation reaction is one type of __________ reaction.

Exchange

21

The anions exchange places between cations in ___________ reactions.

Exchange

22

The driving force in a precipitation reaction is the formation of an ____________ compound.

Insoluble

23

Arrhenius acids produce ______ in water.

H+

24

Arrhenius bases produce ______ in water.

OH-

25

Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a __________.

Proton

26

Brønsted-Lowry base accepts a __________.

Proton

27

Strong acids and bases ionize completely in __________. They are strong electrolytes.

Water

28

Weak acids and bases only ___________ ionize in water. They are weak electrolytes.

Partially

29

Acid-based reactions are also called _______________ reactions.

Neutralization

30

What is the driving force in acid-based (neutralization) reactions?

Formation of water

31

What is the net ionic equation for all reactions of soluble strong acids and bases?

(OH-) + (H+) ——> H2O

32

What are the products of an acid-based reaction?

Water and a salt

33

The exception to the H2O production in a neutralization reaction is when _______ reacts with an acid.

NH3

34

Gas-forming reactions come from a metal carbonate reacting with an _________.

Acid

35

Carbonic acid is unstable and forms ______ and ______.

CO2

H2O

36

Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions involve the transfer of ___________ from one substance to another.

Electrons

37

In a redox reaction if you lose electrons it’s ___________.

Oxidation

38

In a redox reaction if you gain electrons it’s a _____________.

Reduction

39

Redox reactions are characterized by electron transfer between electron __________ and electron __________.

Donor

Acceptor

40

An electron transfer leads to an increase in the oxidation number of one element = ____________.

Oxidation

41

An electron transfer leads to a decrease in the oxidation number of another element = _____________.

Reduction

42

The electric charge an element appears to have when electrons are counted by some arbitrary rules are what?

Oxidation numbers

43

Each atom in a free element has an oxidation number of _______.

Zero

44

In simple ions, the oxidation number is equal to the ___________ on the ion.

Charge

45

Oxygen has an oxidation number of ______.

-2

46

The oxidation number of hydrogen is _____.

+1

47

The algebraic sum of oxidation numbers equals _____ for a neutral compound.

0

48

The algebraic sum of oxidation numbers is equal to the overall charge on a polyatomic ______.

Ion