Chapter 4: Biomechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Biomechanics Deck (71):
1

study of how body systems cooperate to perform certain tasks

functional anatomy

2

study of the mechanical principles to understand the function of living organisms and systems

bio mechanics

3

collection of matter

body

4

motion in which a body moves in a straight line

linear motion (recilinear motion)

5

motion in which a body moves along a curved path

Curvilinear motion

6

motion in which a body rotates about a fixed line

angular motion

7

axis of rotation is AKA

fulcrum or pivot

8

combination of linear and angular motion

general motion

9

plane that separates the body into front and back

frontal plane

10

plane that separates the body into left and right

sagittal plane

11

plane that separates the body into top and bottom

transverse plane

12

study of movement from a descriptive perspective w/o regard to underlying forces

kinematics

13

change in velocity per unit time

velocity

14

movement assessment with respect to the forces involved

kinetics

15

mechanical action or effect applied to a body that tends to produce acceleration

force

16

two types of forces

internal
external

17

a body at rest or in motion tends to remain at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an outside force

newtons first law

18

F=MxA

newtons second law

19

for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

newtons thrid law

20

mechanism by which momentum is transferred from one body to another

transfer of momentum

21

analogous to force for angular movements

torque

22

This creates an angular acceleration similar to the way this creates a linear acceleration

Torque
Force

23

Joint motions are produced and controlled by the net effect of these two things

internal and external torques

24

ridged structure fixed at a single point (fulcrum or axis) to which two forces are applied

lever

25

this force on a lever is produced by the active muscle

applied force

26

this force is produced by the weight being lifted or another external force

resistance force

27

the fulcrum is located between the two forces

first class lever

28

the fulcrum is at one end, and the applied force is at ther other end

second class lever

29

the fulcrum is at one end and the resistance force is at the other end

third class lever

30

ratio of the applied force moment arm:resistance force moment arm

mechancial advantage

31

if the mechanical advantage is less than 1

the resistance force has the advantage

32

if the mechanical advantage is greater than 1

the applied force has the advantage

33

Lever in which the longer arm has the mechanical advantage

first class

34

lever in which the applied force always has the advantage

second class

35

lever inwhich the resistance force always has the advantage

third class

36

work =

F x d

37

standard unit of work

joule

38

power = (x2 formulas)

W/t
F/v

39

the ability or capacity to perform mechanical work

mechanical energy

40

two types of mechanical energy

kinetic
potential

41

how much mechanical output can be produced with use of a given amount of metabolic imput

efficiency

42

human skeletal muscle is only about this % efficient

25%

43

Four characteristics of muscle tissue

excitability
contractility
extensibility
elasticity

44

muscle fibers run parallel between the origin and insersion

fusiform (biceps)

45

muscle fibers are arrange at an angle normally

pennate

46

muscle length-tension relationship looks like this

inverted u shape

47

Muscle are able to produce the most force during this type of muscle action

eccentric

48

during this type of training excessive weight is used to focus on the higher force producing capabilities of eccentric muscle action

negatives

49

force of contraction per unit area

specific tension

50

what muscle types have the highest specific tension

FT

51

T/F: specific tension varies widely among whole muscls

T

52

increasing firing frequency of the MU, increasing # of MU recruited, and progressivly recruiting larger motor units are all ways to do this

increase force production intramucularly

53

increasing activation of agonists and synergists, and decreasing the activiation of the antagonists are all ways to do this

increase force production intermuscularly

54

This is the largest contributor to strength gains in novice lifters

neural adaptations

55

maximal muscle force can take this long to develop

0.5 s

56

the time rate of change of force

rate of force development

57

T/F: RFD cannot be improved with resistance training

F, can

58

the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate at a specified velocity

Strength

59

expressing strength is usually limited by the amount of weight that can be lifted through this

sticking point, or weakest point in the ROM

60

The sticking point likely occurs here

where the external resistance has the greatest mechanical advantage

61

this is a movement in which on joint in a movement is independent of the other joints in the chain

open chain

62

this is a movment in which one joint causes other joints in the chain to move in a predictable manner

closed chain

63

An open chain movement usually involves this

a single joint moving, against some angular resistance

64

a closed chain movement usually involves this

multiple joints moving against a linear resistance

65

force does not change throughout the ROM

constant resistance devices

66

free weight and machines are examples of

constant resistance devices

67

devises which resistive force will increase or decrease throughout the ROM

variable resistance devices

68

Machines with cams, elastic resistance and chains are all examples of

variable resistance devices

69

resistive force will vary depending on the force applied to it

accommodating resistance devices

70

isokinetic dynamometers, flywheels, fluid resistance, and exercises performed in water are all examples of

accommodating resistance devices

71

this is a very important factor in designing a safe and effective exercise program

selection of the type of resistance