Chapter 4: Cell Stucture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Cell Stucture Deck (27)
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1

What is the function of the Smooth ER?

cellular transport system - system of tubes that transports substances

2

What is the function of the Rough ER?

The ribosomes of the rough ER synthesize MEMBRANE proteins or secreted proteins

3

Are enzymes inorganic or organic?

Organic (they are proteins)

4

Where does the substrate bind to?

Active site

5

Are enzymes specific to particular reactions?

yes

6

What is the function of the vacuoles?

storage of waste and other material

7

What is the function of the lysosomes?

digests foreign substances and worn out cell parts

8

What is the function of the mitochondria?

produces ATP, bound by a double membrane

9

What is the function of the cell membrane?

outer membrane that regulates what comes and goes in and out of the cell

10

What are plant cell walls called?

Cellulose (polysaccharide)

11

What are bacteria cell walls called?

Peptidoglycan (protein and sugar)

12

What are fungi cell walls called?

Chitin (polysaccharide)

13

What is the function of the nucleus?

Control center of the cell, contains genetic material (DNA), also bound by a double membrane

14

What is the function of the nucleolus?

Small, dense structure in nucleus, site of RIBSOME SYNTHESIS

15

What are examples of substances that cross with simple diffusion?

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Cholesterol

16

What do catalysts do?

Catalysts make chemical reactions occur faster

17

What are substrates?

They are reactants in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

18

What do coenzymes do?

they help enzymes work faster or at all

19

What are the most important coenzymes and why do we need them?

Vitamins - without them, enzymes would be unable ot function so chemical reactions would not occur. This is why humans need all the vitamins to survive

20

What direction does diffusion go in (gradient)?

High to low concentration

21

What direction does active transport go in (gradient)?

Low to high concentration

22

What does active transport require?

Energy

23

What are some substances that cross with facilitated diffusion?

Sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose

24

How do hydrophobic substances cross the membrane?

through facilitated diffusion

25

What is phagocytosis?

cell eating - amoeba surrounds food with pseudopods

26

What is pinocytosis?

cell drinking

27

What is endocytosis?

bulk transport into cell, includes phagocytosis and pinocytosis