Flashcards in Chapter 4: Cell Stucture Deck (27)
What is the function of the Smooth ER?
cellular transport system - system of tubes that transports substances
What is the function of the Rough ER?
The ribosomes of the rough ER synthesize MEMBRANE proteins or secreted proteins
Are enzymes inorganic or organic?
Organic (they are proteins)
Where does the substrate bind to?
Are enzymes specific to particular reactions?
What is the function of the vacuoles?
storage of waste and other material
What is the function of the lysosomes?
digests foreign substances and worn out cell parts
What is the function of the mitochondria?
produces ATP, bound by a double membrane
What is the function of the cell membrane?
outer membrane that regulates what comes and goes in and out of the cell
What are plant cell walls called?
What are bacteria cell walls called?
Peptidoglycan (protein and sugar)
What are fungi cell walls called?
What is the function of the nucleus?
Control center of the cell, contains genetic material (DNA), also bound by a double membrane
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Small, dense structure in nucleus, site of RIBSOME SYNTHESIS
What are examples of substances that cross with simple diffusion?
Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Cholesterol
What do catalysts do?
Catalysts make chemical reactions occur faster
What are substrates?
They are reactants in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
What do coenzymes do?
they help enzymes work faster or at all
What are the most important coenzymes and why do we need them?
Vitamins - without them, enzymes would be unable ot function so chemical reactions would not occur. This is why humans need all the vitamins to survive
What direction does diffusion go in (gradient)?
High to low concentration
What direction does active transport go in (gradient)?
Low to high concentration
What does active transport require?
What are some substances that cross with facilitated diffusion?
Sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose
How do hydrophobic substances cross the membrane?
through facilitated diffusion
What is phagocytosis?
cell eating - amoeba surrounds food with pseudopods
What is pinocytosis?