Chapter 4 Definitions/Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Definitions/Concepts Deck (53)
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1

Cofactors

Nonprotein portions of an enzyme required for action

2

Coenzyme

An organic cofactor required for enzyme activity

3

Apoenzyme

An enzyme lacking its cofactor, coenzyme or prosthetic groups

4

Holoenzyme

Apoenzyme and its cofactor, coenzyme or prosthetic groups. Essentially everything needed for catalytic activity

5

Metalloenzyme

Apoenzyme and it's metal iron cofactor

6

Prosthetic group

Tightly bound coenzyme

7

Stereospecificity

The arrangement of the substrate atoms in three-dimensional space

8

Active Site

Region on the enzyme that is directly responsible for interacting with the reacting molecules

9

Proenzyme or Zymogen

An enzyme in its inactive form

10

Six basic enzyme types

Oxidoreductases
Transferases
Hydrolase's
Lyases
Isomerases
Ligases or Synthertases

11

Oxidoreductases

Redox reactions

12

Transferases

The transfer groups of atoms

13

Hydrolases

Hydrolysis

14

Lyases

Addition to a double bond or information of a double bond

15

Isomerases

The isomerization of molecules

16

Ligases or Synthertases

The joining of two molecules

17

Oxidation

The loss of one or more electrons, gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen

18

Reduction

Gain of one or more electrons, loss of oxygen or gain of hydrogen

19

Aminotransferase

Transfers an amino group

20

Phosphotransferase

Transfers of phosphoryl group

21

Phosphatase

Catalyzes the hydrolysis of a monophosphate ester

22

Peptidase

Catalyzes the hydrolysis of a peptide bond

23

Deaminase

Aids in the removal of ammonia

24

Decarboxylase

Catalyzes the loss of CO2

25

Pyruvate carboxylase

Catalyzes the formation of a C-C bond

26

Acetyl CoA Synthetase

Catalyzed formation of a C-S bond

27

Enzyme-substrate complex

The substrate in some way binds to the enzymes active site

28

Endergonic

Non spontaneous and energy is absorbed

29

Michaelis constant

The substrate concentration producing a rate of one half the maximum velocity

30

Allosteric

Regulatory