Chapter 4 - Growth, Diversity, and Conflict, 1720-1763 Flashcards Preview

AP U.S. History > Chapter 4 - Growth, Diversity, and Conflict, 1720-1763 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Growth, Diversity, and Conflict, 1720-1763 Deck (40):
1

tenant

a renter

2

competency

the state of a household being independent and able to support the next generation

3

marriage portion

a gift of land, livestock, or farm equipment passed from parents to children as a repayment for past labor and allowing the parents to choose the marriage partner

4

"household mode of production"

the swapping of labor and goods between neighboring New England households

5

squatter

a person who illegally settles on land, hoping to later acquire it on legal terms

6

Walking Purchase of 1737

land fraud committed by the Penn family - they exploited an old (and probably fraudulent) Indian deed to claim over a million acres of farmland

7

redemptioner system

a flexible form of indentured servitude that allowed families to negotiate terms upon arrival

8

Enlightenment

a European cultural movement that emphasized the power of human reason

9

Pietism

evangelical Christian movement that stressed an individual's personal relationship with God

10

Licensing Act

until 1695 - an act that allowed the British government to censor all printed materials

11

Boston Newsletter

the first consistently published newspaper in the colonies

12

natural rights

life, liberty, and property

13

Benjamin Franklin

inventor, scholar, and exemplar of the American Enlightenment

14

Pennsylvania Gazette

influential newspaper founded by Benjamin Franklin

15

Deism

a way of thinking stating that God created the universe but stays separate from it and allows it to be governed by natural laws

16

American Philosophical Society

scholarly organization founded by Benjamin Franklin

17

religious revival

a renewal of religious enthusiasm

18

Jonathan Edwards

Northampton minister who encouraged Pietism in New England

19

George Whitefield

English minister who helped spread the Great Awakening in the colonies

20

Great Awakening

a sudden outbreak of religious revival that spread throughout the colonies

21

Old Lights

conservative ministers who opposed the Great Awakening

22

New Lights

Pietist supporters of the Great Awakening

23

Print Revolution

mass production and spread of printed works following the revocation of the Licensing Act and the invention of the printing press

24

Baptism

a sect of radical Protestantism with the central ritual of adult baptism

25

French and Indian War

a conflict between Britain and France for land claims in America, ending in British triumph

26

William Pitt

British leader in the Great War for Empire

27

Treaty of Paris (1763)

agreement of Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War

28

Neolin

known as the Prophet of Delaware; called for ending interaction with the settlers

29

Pontiac

Indian chief who led an uprising against British occupation

30

Royal Proclamation of 1763

confirmed Indian control of the trans-Appalachian west and declared the land off-limits for colonial settlers

31

Industrial Revolution

a European movement (beginning in Britain) characterized by the development of many new manufacturing technologies

32

consumer revolution

a general increase in the popularity of English goods

33

Susquehanna Company

speculated lands in Wyoming Valley (presently northeastern Pennsylvania)

34

Paxton Boys

massacred twenty Conestoga Indians in a demand for the expulsion of all Indians

35

Regulators

a group of landowning vigilantes who demanded more courts, fairer taxation, and greater representation for western districts

36

Albany Congress

intercolonial conference summoned by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 with the intention of unifying the against the French

37

Albany Plan of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin to counter French expansion (never seriously considered)

38

Isaac Newton

English physicist and mathematician who played a key role in the Scientific Revolution

39

Copernicus

theorized that Earth revolved around the Sun rather than the other way around

40

Tanaghrisson

killed French officer to ensure French and Indian War as well as force British arms to support Iroquois interests

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