Chapter 4: Relational Databases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Relational Databases Deck (34)
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1

database

a set of interrelated, centrally coordinated data files that are stored with as little data redundancy as possible

2

database management system (DBMS)

the program that manages and controls the data and the interfaces between the data and the application programs that use the data stored in the database

3

database system

the database, the DBMS, and the application programs that access the database through the DBMS

4

database administrator

the person responsible for coordinating, controlling, and managing the database

5

data warehouse

very large databases containing detailed and summarized data for a number of years that are used for analysis rather than transaction processing

6

business intelligence

analyzing large amounts of data for strategic decision making

7

online analytical processing (OLAP)

using queries to investigate hypothesized relationships among data

8

data mining

using sophisticated statistical analysis to "discover" unhypothesized relationships in the data

9

record layout

document that shows the items storied in a file, including the order and length of the data fields and the type of the data stored

10

logical view

how people conceptually organize, view, and understand the relationships among data items

11

physical view

the way data are physically arranged and stored in the computer system

12

schema

a description of the data elements in a database, the relationships among them, and the logical model used to organize and describe the data

13

conceptual-level schema

the organization-wide view of the entire database that lists all data elements and the relationships between them

14

external-level schema

an individual user's view of portions of a database; also called a subschema

15

subschema

a subset of the schema; the way the user defines the data and the data relationships

16

internal-level schema

a low-level view of the entire database describing how the data are actually stored and accessed

17

data dictionary

information about the structure of the database, including a description of each data element

18

data definition language (DDL)

DMBS language that builds the data dictionary, creates the database, describes logical views, and specifies record or field security constraints

19

data manipulation language (DML)

DBMS language that changes database content, including data element creations, updates, insertions, and deletions

20

data query language (DQL)

high-level, English-like DBMS language that contains powerful, easy-to-use commands that enable users to retrieve, sort, order, and display data

21

report writer

DBMS language that simplifies report creation

22

data model

an abstract representation of database contents

23

relational data model

a two-dimensional table representation of data; each row represents a unique entity (record) and each column is a field where record attributes are stored

24

tuple

a row in a table that contains data about a specific item in a database table

25

primary key

database attribute, or combination of attributes, that uniquely identifies each row in a table

26

foreign key

an attribute in a table that is also a primary key in another table; used to link the two tables

27

update anomaly

improper database organization where a non-primary key item is stored multiple times; updating the item in one location and not the others causes data inconsistencies

28

insert anomaly

improper database organization that results in the inability to add records to a database

29

delete anomaly

improper organization of a database that results in the loss of all information about an entity when a row is deleted

30

relational database

a database built using the relational data model