Chapter 20: Introduction to Systems Development and Systems Analysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20: Introduction to Systems Development and Systems Analysis Deck (37)
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1

systems development life cycle (SDLC)

a five-step process used to design and implement a new system

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systems analysis

first SDLC step where the information needed to purchase, develop, or modify a system is gathered

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conceptual design

second SDLC step where analysts decide how to meet user needs, identify and evaluate design alternatives, and develop detailed specifications for what the system is to accomplish and how it is to be controlled

4

physical design

third SDLC step where broad, user-oriented conceptual design requirements are translated into the detailed specifications used to code and test software, design input/output, create files/databases, develop procedures, and implement controls

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implementation and conversion

fourth SDLC step where the company hires and trains employees, tests and modifies procedures, establishes standards and controls, completes documentation, moves to the new system, and detects and corrects design deficiencies

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operations and maintenance

fifth SDLC step where the system is periodically reviewed and necessary modifications and improvements are made

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information systems steering committee

high-level management who plan and oversee the IS function, setting IS policies that govern the AIS, ensuring top-management guidance and control, and coordinating and integrating systems activities

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systems analysis

people who help users determine their information needs, study existing systems and design new ones, and prepare specifications used by computer programmers

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computer programmers

people who write and test programs using the specifications developed by the analysts and modify and maintain existing computer programs

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project development plan

document showing project requirements (people, hardware software, and financial), a cost-benefit analysis, and how a project will be completed (modules or tasks to be performed, who will perform them, and completion dates).

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master plan

it describes what a system will consist of, how it will be developed, who will develop it, when it will be developed, how needed resources will be acquired, the status of projects in process, the prioritization of planned projects, and the prioritization criteria

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program evaluation and review technique (PERT)

a way to plan, develop, coordinate, control, and schedule systems development activities; all activities, and precedent and subsequent relationships among activities, are identified and shown on a PERT diagram

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critical path

the PERT path requiring the greatest amount of time to complete a project; if a critical path activity is delayed, the whole project is delayed

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Gantt chart

a bar graph used for project planning. It shows project activities on the left, units of time across the top, and the time each activity is expected to take a horizontal bar

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feasibility study

an investigation to determine whether it is practical to develop a new application or system

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economic feasibility

determining whether system benefits justify the time, money, and resources required to implement it

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technical feasibility

determining if a proposed system can be developed given the available technology

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legal feasibility

determining if a proposed system will comply with all applicable federal and state laws, administrative agency regulations, and contractual obligations

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scheduling feasibility

determining if a proposed system can be developed and implemented in the time allotted

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operational feasibility

determining if the organization has access to people who can design, implement, and operate the proposed system and if employees will use the system

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capital budgeting model

a return-on-investment technique use to compare estimated benefits and costs to determine whether a system is cost beneficial

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payback period

a return-on-investment technique used to calculate the number of years required for the net savings of a system to equal its initial cost

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net present value (NPV)

a return-on-investment technique that discounts all estimated future cash flows back to the present using a discount rate that reflects the time value of money

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internal rate of return (IRR)

a return-on-investment technique that calculates the interest rate that makes the present value of total costs equal to the present value of total savings

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behavioral aspects of change

the positive and negative ways people react to change; managing these behavioral reactions is crucial to successfully implementing a new system

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aggression

resistance to change intended to destroy, cripple, or weaken system effectiveness, such as increased error rates, disruptions, or deliberate sabotage

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projection

resistance to change that blames anything and everything on the new system, such that it becomes the scapegoat for all real and imagined problems and errors

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avoidance

resistance to change where users ignore a new IS in the hope that the new system will eventually go away

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request for systems development

a written request for a new or improved system that describes the current system's problems, the reasons for the change, and the proposed system's objectives, benefits, and costs

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initial investigation

a preliminary investigation to determine whether a proposed new system is both needed and feasible