Flashcards in Chapter 4- Section 1&2 Quiz Deck (16):
A ruler whose power was unlimited and should not be challenged because they ruled by divine (God given) right.
Holy Roman Emperor
NOT a position of absolute power because leaders of the empire's small states fought against increased imperial power.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Forced to sign the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 which allowed German kings to decide whether or not to be Catholic or Protestant. Gave up his thrones in 1556 because he was frustrated with his failure to defeat Protestantism.
Phillip the second
After Charles V gave up his throne, his son Phillip took over the Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, and Spain's colonies in the Americas. Despite a steady flow of gold from the explorations of Cortes and Coronado, Spain remained a poor country with a weak economy.
The Spanish Armada
Phillip the second decided to invade England in order to stop the seadogs and return England to the Catholic Church. Totaling 130 ships and 20,000 soldiers and sailors, this fleet proved not to be invincible in the face of storms and English fire-ships.
Spanish painter famous for his elongated human figures.
Spanish painter who portrayed people of all social classes with great dignity.
Juana Ines de la Cruz
A Mexican nun who argued that women had the right to an education.
French Calvinist Protestants.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Event when the Catholic French Queen ordered the killing of tens of thousands of Huguenots.
French Protestant nobleman who became king Henry IV after converting to Catholicism.
To end the religious warring...
Between the Catholics and Huguenots of his country Henry IV issued a compromise called the Edict of Nantes, in which the people of France were no longer forced to follow the monarch's religion.
One of his main goals was to limit the power of the nobles and Huguenots. He relied on his advisor, Cardinal Richelieu, who through his actions demonstrated that he was more interested in strengthening his own king's power than supporting other Catholic monarchs.
Referred to himself as " The Sun King". Louis XIV was the best example of an absolute monarch. His greatest ambition was to build up the military and expand French territory. Appointed Jean-Baptiste Colbert minister of finance who reduced France's debt.
Balance of Power
Series of alliances between countries so that no one team of countries becomes too powerful.