Chapter 4: The Methods and Ethics of Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: The Methods and Ethics of Research Deck (37):
1

A theory is

an explanation for our observations

2

Which of the following statements is a biological psychologist LEAST likely to make

These results prove that heavy drinking results in memory loss

3

A detailed study of a single person showing interesting behavior is called

a case study

4

A study that allows researchers to determine if a cause-effect exists between two variables is

an experiment

5

Dr. Joy observes the behavior of mice in large colonies, taking particular note of social interactions, but does not interfere with the mice in any way. What type of study is this.

naturalistic observation

6

Dr. Hagen performs a study in which participants are given different amounts of alcohol and then are tested in a driving simulation. in this study, alcohol is

the independent variable.

7

Research volunteers are given either a placebo pill or a drug containing a small amount of amphetamine. Then the volunteers are asked to play a game of chess on the computer. The researchers believe that the amphetamine will interfere with the participants ability to play well. What is dependent variable in this study.

Performance in the chess game

8

Female and male college students are compared on a math test. This is BEST described as a(n)

Correlational study

9

The dopamine theory of schizophrenia

All of the above. Suggests the disorder is a result of dopamine hyperactivity in the brain. was developed after some researchers noticed drug users showing signs of schizophrenia. Does not account for all for all cases of schizophrenia. .

10

The staining procedure that allowed 19th century anatomists to study individual neurons was discovered by :
A. Santiago Ramon y Cajal
B. Camillo Golgi
C. Candace Pert
D. Henrik Mouritsen

B. Camillo Golgi

11

If researchers want to find nucleus (collection of cell bodies) in the hypothalamus, they are the MOST likely to use which of the following techniques
A. Nissl Staining
B. Myelin Staining
C. in situ hybridization
D. Immunocytochemistry

A. Nissl staining

12

___ is a substance that may be injected into one areas of the brain and then transferred to other cells.
A. Fluorogold
B. Nissl Stain
C. Golgi Stain
D. Myelin stain

A. Fluorogold

13

Which procedure involves the use of radioactive sugar molecules, which are absorbed by active neurons and then detected on a photographic film.
A. Immunocytochemistry
B. Nissl staining
C. autoradiography
D. Golgi staining

C. Autoradiography

14

Brain researchers discovered opiate receptors using which technique?
A. Nissl staining
B. autoradiography
C. Immunocytochemistry
D. Golgi staining

B. Autoradiography

15

Immunocytochemistry involves the use of __, whereas in situ hybridization involves the use of __.
A. radioactive DNA; dye-labeled antibodies
B. dye-labeled antibodies; radioactive DNA
C. dye-labeled antibodies; radioactive sugar molecules
D. radioactive sugar molecules; radioactive DNA

B. dye-labeled antibodies; radioactive DNA

16

Cryptochromes are proteins that
A. bind to opiate receptor sites
B. impair the immune system's ability to fight infection
C. may to responsible to night-migration in some types of birds
D. interfere with messenger RNA

C. May be responsible for night0migration in some types of birds

17

An electron microscope allows us to see images of objects magnified up to __ times.
A. 250
B. 2,500
C. 25,000
D. 250,000

D. 250,000

18

The EEG has relatively __ temporal resolution and __ spatial resolution.
A. good; good
B. poor; poor
C. good; poor
D. poor; good

C. good; poor

19

Researchers who use evoked potentials to study brain activity are MOST likely interest in
A. studying pts who are asleep
B. identifying how the brain responds to brief changes in stimuli.
C. recording from single neurons
D. injecting chemicals in the brain

B. identifying how the brain responds to brief changes in stimuli.

20

A stereotaxic instrument may be used to
A. place a recording electrode in a specific location in the brain.
B. place a stimulating electrode in a specific location in the brain
C. Locate a specific area of the brain in which to inject chemicals.
D. All of the above

D. all of the above.

21

Microdialysis is a procedure for
A. removing brain fluid for analysis
B. injecting chemicals into the brain to destroy neurons.
C. injecting radioactive substances into the brain to measure activity.
D. removing neurons from the brain for analysis.

A. Removing brain fluid for analysis

22

Jerry is undergoing a procedure in which several electrodes are attached to his scalp, and the activity of neurons under the electrodes is recoded. What is this procedure called.
A. EEG
B. PET
C. MRI
D. CT

A. EEG

23

Aspiration is BEST thought of as a form of
A. Lesioning
B. recording brain activity
C. ablation
D. reversible lesioning

C. ablation

24

Which of the following brain imaging techniques involves the use of XR
A. MRI
B. fMRI
C. PET
D. CT

D. CT

25

If a brain researcher is interested in studying which brain areas are MOST active during a spatial skills task, the procedure of choice would be.
A. MRI
B. PET
C. CT.
D. TMS

B. PET

26

The effects of heredity and environment on behavior are MOST confounded in
A. family studies
B. Adoption studies.
C. twin studies
D. genetic engineering studies

A. family studies.

27

a correlation of -.75 indicates
A. a week relationship between two variables
B. a strong relationship between two variables.
C. no relationship
D. a mistake; correlations cannot be negative.

B. a strong relationship

28

When researchers look at IQ scores of children raised by adoptive parents, there is a correlation of about __ with IQ scores of their biological parents.
A. 0.42
B. 0.47
C. 0.60
D. 0.22

D. 0.22

29

compared to identical twins, fraternal twins show __ concordance for schizophrenia
A. a higher
B. a lower
C. the same
D. no

B. a lower

30

The __ technique of genetic engineering involves preventing or reducing the expression of a particular gene by occupying the cell's RNA with a synthetic strand of DNA.
A. Antisense DNA
B. Transgenic
C. antisense RNA
D. Knockout

C. Antisense RNA

31

people with SCID
A. may die if exposed to a normal environment.
B. suffer from severe mental disorders.
C. may be aided by genetic engineering.
D. A and C.

D. A & C

32

Jennifer is a graduate student studying the effects of electrical stimulation on the cingulate gyrus in rats' brains. Her initial results are not what she expected, because she is worried about finishing her dissertation in time, she changes some of her data so that it fits her hypothesis. Jennifer has engaged in
a. plagiarism
b. deception
c. fabrication
d. breaking the law

c. fabrication

33

Researchers who use humans as participants
a. are barred from intentionally deceiving them.
b. may withhold info from them but may not lie to them.
c. must fully inform them about all details of a procedure beforehand.
d. may not withhold info about risks or discomfort that might occur

d. may not withhold information about risks or discomfort that might occur.

34

what percentage of lab animals are primates.
a. more than 90%
b. about 50%
c. between 10% and 15%
d. fewer than 5%

d. fewer than 5%

35

regarding animal research guidelines, which of the following is false?
a. procedures involving pain may not be performed on primates
b. stress should be minimized
c. procedures must be approved by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
d. researchers must provide humane housing and medical care

a. procedures involving pain may not be performed on primates

36

The researcher Edward Taub, whose lab at Silver Springs, Maryland, made national headlines in the 1980's.
a. is currently serving a prison sentence for animal abuse
b. received an awarded from the American psychological society.
c. was able to complete his research after his grant was reinstated by the NIH
d. none of the above.

b. received an awarded from the American psychological society.

37

which of the following statements regarding gene therapy research is TRUE
a. no human has died from gene therapy research.
b. some humans have been treated for diseases using gene therapy research
c. Gene therapy research with humans is illegal in the US.
d. the idea that "designer babies" can be created is science fiction, not reality.

b. some humans have been treated for diseases using gene therapy research