This is a transient imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. The condition results in chest pain that is aching, sharp, tingling, or burning or that feels like pressure. Typically chest pain is left-sided or substernal and often radiates to the left or both arms, jaw, neck, and back. In some patients the pain does not radiate. Pain usually last from 3 to 5 minutes. What is this defined as?
This is the resistance to left ventricular ejection. The heart works harder to overcome the resistance so blood can be fully ejected from the left ventricle. What is this defined as?
The _________ pressure is a good clinical measure of this. In ________ this increases making cardiac workload also increase.
The most common mode of support provides both inspiratory positive airway pressure and expiratory positive airway pressure also known as positive and expiratory pressure. What is this defined us?
Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP)
Incomplete expansion of the lungs,
usually caused by pressure from exudate,
fluid, tumor, or an abstracted airway;
may involve part or all of one lung. What is this defined as?
When there is a bloody or blood sputum healthcare providers frequently perform diagnostic tests such as examination of ________ specimen, __________ examination, ________, and other x-ray film studies.
This is the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each minute. The circulating blood volume changes according to the oxygen and metabolic needs of the body. What is this defined as?
Ex. Cardiac output increases during exercise, pregnancy, and fever but decreases during sleep.
This helps patients achieve and maintain an optimal level of health through controlled physical exercise, nutrition counseling, relaxation and stress management techniques, and prescribe medications and oxygen. As physical reconditioning occurs a patient’s complaints of dyspnea, chest pain, fatigue, and activity intolerance decrease. What is this defined as?
This is changed to CAB for adult and pediatric patients. The critical elements found to be essential for survival were chest compressions and early different relation.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
This is a group of therapies for ______ pulmonary secretions. These therapies include _________, chest percussion, and vibration. What is this defined as?
This is followed by productive _______ or _______ of a patient who has a decreased ability to cough. This is recommended for patients who have greater than ____ of sputum per day or have evidence of atelectasis on a chest re-examination. This is safe for infants and young children.
Chest Physiotherapy (CPT) mobilizing postural drainage coughing or suctioning 30 mL
This is a catheter inserted through the thorax to remove air and fluids from the plural space, to prevent air or fluid from entering the pleural space, or to reestablish normal intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressures. These are common after chest surgery and chest trauma and are used to treat pneumothorax or hemothorax to promote lung reexpansion. What is this defined as?
temporary cessation of breathing especially while sleeping. What is this defined as?
This is useful for patients with pulmonary disease, postoperative patients, and women in labor to promote relaxation and provide pain control. This exercise improves efficiency of breathing by decreasing air trapping and reducing the work of breathing. What is this defined as?
Ventilatory support used to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea, patients with congestive heart failure, and preterm infants with underdeveloped lungs. What is defined as?
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
Electrical impulses that do not originate from the SA node cause conduction disturbances. This is a deviation from the normal sinus heart rhythm. These occur as a primary conduction disturbance such as in response to ischemia, valvular abnormality, anxiety, drug toxicity, caffeine, alcohol, tobacco use, or as a complication of acid-base or electrolyte imbalance. What is this defined as?
Difficult breathing, often associated with heart or lung disease and results in shortness of breath. Also called air hunger. This is a clinical sign of hypoxia. This is the subjective sensation of difficult or uncomfortable breathing. This is shortness of breath usually associated with exercise or excitement, but in some patients it is present without any relation to activity or exercise. What is this defined as?
This reflects the electrical activity of the conduction system. This monitors the regularity and path of the electrical impulse through the conduction system. What is this defined as?
This test ______ reflect the muscular work of the heart.
This is a short-term artificial airway to administer mechanical ventilation, relieve upper airway obstruction, protect against aspiration, or clear secretions. A doctor inserts this not a nurse. What is this defined as?
Endotracheal Tube (ET)
This is a passive process that depends on the elastic recoil properties of the lungs, requiring little or no muscle work. What is this defined as?
This is the vomiting of blood, indicated upper gastrointestinal bleeding. What is this defined as?
This is an accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleura usually as a result of trauma. This produces a counterpressure and prevents the lung from full expansion. A rupture of small blood vessels from inflammatory processes, such as pneumonia or TB can cause this. In addition to pain and dyspnea, signs and symptoms of shock develop if blood loss is severe. What is this defined as?
When this occurs bloody sputum is present, determine if it is associated with coughing and bleeding from the upper respiratory tract, sinus drainage, or the gastrointestinal tract. This has an alkaline pH, and hematemesis has an acidic pH, thus PH testing of the specimen may help to determine the source. What is this defined as?
This is the process of adding water to gas. Temperature is the most important factor affecting the amount of water vapor a gas can hold. Relative humidity is the percentage of water in the gas. Air or oxygen with high relative humidity keep the airways moist and loosens and mobilizes pulmonary secretions. This is necessary for patients receiving oxygen therapy at greater than _____ per minute. What is is defined as?
This is a state of ventilation in which the lungs remove carbon dioxide faster than is produced by cellular metabolism. Severe anxiety, infection, drugs, or an acid base balance cause this. What is this defined as?
This occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the oxygen demand of the body or eliminate sufficient carbon dioxide. As alveolar ventilation decreases the body retains carbon dioxide. What is this defined as?
Ex. Atelectasis a collapse of the alveoli, prevents normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. As more alveoli collapse, less of the long is ventilated and hypoventilation occurs.
Shock and severe dehydration cause extracellular fluid loss which reduce circulating blood volume. Decreased circulating blood volume then results in hypoxia to body tissues. What is this defined as?
This is inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level. This is caused by a deficiency in oxygen delivery or oxygen use at the cellular level. This is a life-threatening condition. Untreated it produces possibly fatal cardiac dysrhythmias. What is this defined as?
This encourages voluntary deep breathing by providing visual feedback to patients about inspiratory volume. This promotes deep breathing. This prevents and treats atelectasis in the post-operative patient. What is this defined as?
This is an active process, stimulated by chemical receptors in the aorta. What is this defined as?
This results from sudden decrease in coronary bloodflow or an increase in myocardial oxygen demand without adequate coronary perfusion. This occurs because ischemia is not reversed. Cell death occurs after 20 minutes. What is this defined as?
Myocardial Infarction (MI) or Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
In metabolic acidosis the acidic pH stimulates an increase in both rate and depth of respirations to more than 20 breaths/minute. The lungs compensate by decreasing carbon dioxide levels using this mechanism. What is this defined as?
This results when the supply of blood to the myocardium for the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet myocardial oxygen demands. Two outcomes of this are angina pectoris and MI. What is this defined as?
This is a simple, comfortable device used for precise oxygen delivery. Flowrates equal to or greater than ___ per minute have a drying effect on the mucosa and thus need to be humidified. Know which flowrates produce a given percentage of inspired oxygen concentration. What is this defined as?
This adds moisture or medications to inspired air by mixing particles of varying sizes with the air. What is this defined as?
_____ suspends the maximum number of water drops or particles of the desired size in inspired air. The moisture added to this improves clearance of pulmonary secretions. This is used for administration of ______ and ______ agents.
bronchodilators and mucolytic
This is used to prevent using invasive artificial airways (Ex. ET tube or tracheostomy) in patients with acute respiratory failure, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, or exacerbation of COPD. This has also been used following extubation of the ET tube. What is this defined as?
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV)
This is the normal sequence on the ECG. This implies that the impulse originates as the SA node and follows the normal sequence through the conduction system. The P wave represents the electrical conduction through both atria. Atrial contraction follows the P wave. The PR interval represents the impulse travel time from the SA node through the AV node, through the bundle of His, and to the Purkinje fibers. What is this defined as?
Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)
This is a component of pulmonary hygiene. This consists of drainage, positioning, and turning and is sometimes accompanied by just percussion and vibration. This improves secretion _____ and ______. What is this defined us?
clearance and oxygenation
This is an abnormal condition in which a patient needs multiple pillows while reclining to breathe easier or sits leaning forward with arms elevated. Also includes difficulty breathing while supine. Ask if the patient must sleep in a recliner chair to breathe easier. What is this defined as?
This is the ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and returned deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
This is a collection of air in the pleural space. The loss of negative intrapleural pleasure causes the long to collapse. Can occur as a result of chest trauma, or by the rupture of an emphysematous bleb on the surface of the lining, tearing of the pleura from an invasive procedure such a surgery, insertion of a subclavian IV line, and mechanical ventilation, including PEEP. What is this defined as?
This is a component of pulmonary hygiene. It consists of drainage, positioning, and turning and is sometimes accompanied by chest percussion and vibration. What is this defined as?
This is the end-diastolic volume. What is this defined as?
This involves deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips to prevent alveolar collapse. While sitting up instruct the patient to take a deep breath and exhale slowly through pursed lips as a blown through a straw. Patients need to gain control of the exhalation phase so it is not longer than inhalation. What is this defined as?
Pursed lip breathing
The ventricles ____ blood during diastole and ______ blood during systole. This is the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles during _________.
What is this defined as?
______ and ________ cause a decreased in circulating blood volume which causes a decrease in this.
Fill with Empty Systole Stroke Volume Hemorrhage and dehydration
This is a chemical produced in the lungs to maintain the surface tension of the alveoli and keep them from collapsing. What is this defined as?
If a patient requires long-term assistance from an artificial airway this is considered. A surgical incision is made into the trachea and a short artificial airway is inserted. Most of these have a small plastic inner tube that fits inside a larger one. The most common complication is partial or total airway obstruction caused by buildup of respiratory secretions. What is defined us?
This is the process of moving gases into and out of the lungs. It requires coordination of the muscular and elastic properties of the long and thorax. Most important muscle involved is the diaphragm.
These are life-threatening rhythms that require immediate intervention. This is a life threatening dysrhythmia because of the decreased cardiac output and the potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation or sudden cardiac death. What is this defined as?
This occurs when there is a decrease in blood flow or injury to the brain stem. This pattern has periods of apnea followed by periods of deep breathing then shallow breathing followed by more apnea. The apnea can last 15 to 60 seconds. Breaths that gradually become faster and deeper than normal, then slower, and alternate with periods of apnea. What is this defined us?
A musical pitched sound, usually heard during expiration caused by airway obstruction (asthma, chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, foreign body aspiration). This is caused by high velocity movement of air through a narrow airway. What is this defined as?
This is a collapse of the alveoli that prevents normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Patients with certain pulmonary diseases have decreased surfactant production and sometimes develop this. What is this defined as?
This is responsible for moving the respiratory gases from one area to another by concentration gradient. What is this defined as?
The ventricle stretch when filling with blood. The more stress on the ventricular muscle, the greater the contraction and the grade of the stroke volume. What is this defined as?
___ x ____ = CO
What is the formula for cardiac output?
SV x HR= CO
This condition is caused by decreased hemoglobin level and lowered oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. What is this defined as?
This results from sudden decrease in the coronary bloodflow or an increase in myocardial oxygen demand without adequate coronary perfusion. This occurs because ischemia is not reversed. Cell death occurs after 20 minutes. What is this defined as?
This is associated with asthma, acute bronchitis, or pneumonia. This occurs during inspiration, expiration, or both. Determine if there any precipitating factors such as respiratory infection, allergens, exercise, or stress. What is this defined as?
This has also been used following extubation of the ET tube. Its purpose is to maintain a positive airway pressure and improve alveolar ventilation. This prevent or treat atelectasis by inflating the alveloli, reducing pulmonary edema by forcing fluid out of the lungs back in the circulation, and improving oxygenation in those asleep apnea. What is this defined as?
Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV)
This is an endoscopic technique for visualizing the inside of the airway. An instrument is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy. Allows examination of the patients airway for abnormalities such as foreign bodies, bleeding, tumors, or inflammation. Can also be used to acquire lung specimens. What is this defined as?
With significant fluid lost the body tries to adapt by peripheral vasoconstriction and increase the heart rate to increase the volume of blood return to the heart thus increasing the cardiac output. What is this defined as?
The normal ________ is _____ to ____L per minute in the healthy adult at risk.
4 to 6
A diminished concentration of inspired oxygen occurs with _______.
The inability of the tissues to extract oxygen from the blood occurs with _______.
Decreased diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood occurs with _______.
Poor tissue perfusion with oxygenated blood occurs with _______.
Impaired ventilation occurs with _______ or _________.
high altitudes cyanide poisoning pneumonia shock multiple rib fractures or chest trauma