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3 types of indirect use value (?)

nonconsumptive use value

option value

existence value


List two direct use values and two indirect use values

direct: consumptive and productive

indirect: current benefits and option value


What are non-use values?

existence values

including bequest value


Nonconsumptive use value: value of an ecosystem service

-Define nonconsumptive use value

nonconsumptive use value: because the services are not consumed

33 trillion a year?
-double the value of the world's economy
-human societies are totally dependent on natural ecosystems

Great variety of ecosystem services
and other indirect values


Nonconsumptive use values: what is ecosystem producitivy?

growth of organisms, especially primary producers, providers (plants and algae)

-food (for us and other species)

Also loss of estuaries (communities at the boundaries of oceans) affects ocean catch and sport fishing because the juveniles usually are vulnerable at the estuaries


Why should we try to preserve ecosystem services

the loss of species from biological communities affects overall growth

increase plant cover

leads to an increase in biodiversity


Describe carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service

plant growth represents a carbon sink
-loss of plants increases CO2 in the atmosphere

loss of diversity in plant communities reduces ability to adapt to global climate change
-many species will be eliminated due to drought and insect pests
-some species can't cope with higher CO2 so we want to maintain diversity by decreasing CO2


Describe how protecting water and soil resources provides an ecosystem service

plants protect against floods

-they intercept rain and reduce impact on soil
-plant roots and soil organisms aerate the soil, increasing its ability to absorb water

increased flooding with destruction of natural resources

When vegetation is disturbed by logging and farming, soil erosion increases, landslides increase


Describe waste treatment and nutrient retention as an ecosystem service. (What organisms do it?)

Aquatic communities break down and immobilize toxic pollutants

pollutants: heavy metals, pesticides
aquatic communities: swamps, lakes, rivers, floodplains, tidal marshes, mangroves, estuaries, coastal shelf, open ocean
organisms: fungi, bacteria, plants

also process, store, and recycle nutrients (from sewage and agricultural runoff)

e.g. new york bight (at mouth of the hudson river)


Describe climate regulation as an ecosystem service

plant communities moderate local regional and probably global climate

local: trees prvide shade and transpire water, reducing temperature; also reduce wind

regionally: plants capture water that falls as rain and transpire it back into the atmosphere (90% of water is transpired)

globally: transpiration again, also uptake of CO2


How are species relationships an ecosystem service?

Species that we harvest depend on other species
-wild game and fish (what are their food sources?)

crop plants may require pollinators

useful wild plants may require pollinators, and seed dispersers

e.g., mycorrhizal fungi
e.g., N-fixing bacteria
-mutualism relationships that make N useful to the plants


What are environmental monitors? Give three examples

species that are sensitive to chemical toxins

e.g. lichens
-live on rocks and trees
-absorb chemicals in rainwater and airborne pollution

e.g. mollusks
-aquatic filter feeders
-process large volumes of water and concentrate toxic chemicals (PCBs, pesticides

e.g. algal blooms : increase in population is an indicator of toxic overenrichment


How are recreation and ecotourism a nonconsumptive use value of an area?

Define amenity value and ecotourism.

they provide amenity value and ecotourism, which gives value to the land without using it up.

Amenity value: monetary value of recreation and ecotourism
-350 million visitors each eyar to US parks
-4 billion a year in fees, travel, lodging, food, equipment
-recreation represents >75% of the value of the national forests

Ecotourism: people visiting places and spending money to experience unually biological communities on particular species
e.g. african safaris
e.g. evergaldes


Describe the educational and scientific nonconsumptive values of ecosystems

books, TV prorams, movies are based on nature themes
-nature used as intellectual content

-to understand the natural world


Define option value

a species potential to provide an economic benefit to human society at some point in the future


3 main reasons that we care about option value

for genetic improvement of cultivated plants

for biological control agents to control invasive species

for medicines (bioprospecting)


Describe the option value associated with genetic improvement of cultivated plants

Genetic improvements of cultivated plants:
-increased yield
-resistance to insects
-resistance to fungi, viruses, and bacteria
-source of resistance is often from WILD RELATIVES of the crop that require protecting


Describe the option value of biological control agents

to control invasive species
like the prickly pear cactus moth


Describe the option value of medicine

bioprospecting: searching for organisms that can provide economic value

e.g., anticancer chemical in pacific yew

agreement between US national cancer institute and INBio, drug companies, etc.


Define existence value and beneficiary value and some examples.

the amount people are willing to pay to prevent species from going extinct

Includes beneficiary value: how much people are willing to pay to protect something of value for their descendants, or for future generations
-aka bequest value

Donations for charasmatic megafauna: seals, pandas, elephants

donations for rainforests


"Is economic valuation enough?"

Yes, if you feel that economic thinking should rule our lives

valuation can be made to include indirect values (e.g. tropical wetlands ecosystems)

Many people don't feel this way.


Why do many people think economic valuation isn't enough

current economic system responsible for high levels of pollution, environmental degradation, species extinctions

need to reduce our overconsumption of resources (by a small minority of the human population)

how about more equitable consumption of resources?
how about reducing human population?
how about ethical values?