Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

Second Half of Physics Exam > Chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (50)
1
Q

What type of blood flow demonstrates layers of fluid sliding over each other?

a. plug
b. helical
c. disturbed
d. laminar

A

d. laminar

2
Q

Resistance to flow offered by a fluid in motion describes ______?

a. velocity
b. pressure
c. viscosity
d. volumetric flow rate

A

C. viscosity

3
Q

What is the driving force behind blood flow?

a. heart
b. gravity
c. pressure
d. flow rate

A

c. pressure

4
Q

A nonsteady flow with acceleration and deceleration over the cardiac cycle, is called _____?

a. plug flow
b. pulsatile flow
c. laminar flow
d. parabolic flow

A

b. pulsatile flow

5
Q

_____ describes the volumetric flow rate as a constant.

a. bernoulli effect
b. continuity rule
c. poiseuille’s law
d. doppler equation

A

b. continuity rule

6
Q

the difference between the emitted frequency and the echo frequency returning from a moving scatterer is called _____.

a. doppler effect
b. doppler shift
c. continuity rule
d. bernoulli effect

A

b. doppler shift

7
Q

the volumetric flow rate is equal to _____.

a. pressure difference multiplied by the resistance
b. resistance of blood flow multiplied by the flow rate
c. average flow rate across the vessel multiplied by the cross-sectional area of the vessel
d. force per unit area

A

c. average flow rate across the vessel multiplied by the cross-sectional area of the vessel

8
Q

resistance of the blood flow depends on the radius of the _____.

a. tube to the fourth power
b. tube squared
c. tube divided by the length of the tube
d. tube

A

a. tube to the fourth power

9
Q

if pressure differences in a straight vessel increase, the flow rate _____.

a. increases
b. decreases
c. does not change
d. changes direction

A

a. increases

10
Q

_____ are the tiniest vessels in the human body.

a. veins
b. venules
c. arterioles
d. capillaries

A

d. capillaries

11
Q

which matter is considered a fluid?

a. gases
b. solids
c. liquids
d. gases and liquids

A

d. gases and liquids

12
Q

turbulent flow is a form of _____ flow.

a. pulsatile
b. continuous
c. parabolic
d. nonlaminar

A

d. nonlaminar

13
Q

the state of the downstream arterioles is reflected in the _____.

a. arterial peak systole
b. arterial diastolic flow
c. venous flow rate during expiration
d. venous flow rate during inspiration

A

b. arterial diastolic flow

14
Q

the doppler equation relates the doppler shift to the _____.

a. pressure and resistance
b. flow speed and frequency
c. flow and speed pressure
d. flow and speed and resistance

A

b. flow and speed and frequency

15
Q

the decreased pressure in the regions of high flow speed is called _____.

a. poiseuille’s law
b. bernoulli effect
c. continuity rule
d. volumetric flow rate

A

b. bernoulli effect

16
Q

for a given flow, the greater the doppler angle, the _____.

a. less the doppler shift
b. higher the operating frequency
c. lower the speed of the scatterer
d. more accurate the doppler information

A

a. less the doppler shift

17
Q

sound reflects totally at the wall-blood boundary once the doppler angle is less than _____ degrees.

a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 60

A

a. 30

18
Q

gases, nutrients and waste products are exchanged through the walls of _____.

a. arteries
b. venules
c. arterioles
d. capillaries

A

d. capillaries

19
Q

what is required for flow to occur?

a. hydrostatic pressure
b. pressure difference
c. constant driving pressure
d. variable driving pressure

A

b. pressure difference

20
Q

doppler shift does not depend on the _____.

a. flow speed
b. flow direction
c. Operating frequency
d. doppler angle

A

b. flow direction

21
Q
Doppler measurements are not reliable at Doppler angles greater than \_\_\_\_\_ degrees.
A. 30
B. 40
C. 50
D. 60
A

D. 60

22
Q
The resistance of the \_\_\_\_\_ accounts for about one half of the total resistance in the systemic circulation.
A. blood flow
B. flow rate
C. arterioles
D. capillaries
A

C. arterioles

23
Q

The mount of blood passing a point per unit of time defines ____.

a. velocity
b. viscosity
c. resistance
d. volumetric flow rate

A

d. volumetric flow rate

24
Q

The maximum normal flow speed in the circulation is _____ cm/s.

a. 75
b. 80
c. 100
d. 125

A

c. 100

25
Q

A change in frequency caused by motion of a source or reflector defines ____.

a. Doppler shifts
b. Doppler effect
c. spectral analysis
d. poiseuille’s equation

A

B. Doppler effect

26
Q

Variance color maps demonstrate a change of hues from ____.

a. left to right
b. right to left
c. bottom to top
d. top to bottom

A

a. left to right

27
Q

Which of the following Doppler techniques must be time shared?

a. Color Doppler
b. Duplex imaging
c. Spectral analysis
d. Continuous wave

A

b. Duplex imaging

28
Q

Which system control eliminates low-frequency Doppler shifts?

a. Range gate
b. Wall filter
c. Dynamic range
d. Angle correction

A

b. Wall filter

29
Q

The width of the sample volume is determined by the ______.

a. beam width and sample volume depth
b. operating frequency and maximum penetration depth
c. thickness of the element and sample volume depth
d. number of focal zones utilized and maximum penetration depth

A

a. beam width and sample volume depth

30
Q

What advantage does spectral analysis have when compared to other Doppler techniques? Spectral analysis _____.

a. is not angle dependent
b. is free of aliasing artifact
c. determines flow direction
d. displays peak systolic velocities

A

d. displays peak systolic velocities

31
Q

With color Doppler imaging, the priority control ____.

a. eliminates aliasing
b. filters out low-intensity echoes
c. selects the pulse repetition frequency
d. selects which gray-scale echo strength will demonstrate color

A

d. selects which gray-scale echo strength will demonstrate color

32
Q
Which flow type demonstrates a flow velocity that is essentially constant across the vessel?
a. plug
b. helical
c laminar
d. parabolic
A

a. plug

33
Q

The angle of incidence is not important with which Doppler display?

a. color
b. power
c. duplex
d. spectral

A

b. power

34
Q

Vertical thickening of the spectral tracing is called ____.

a. turbulence
b. range ambiguity
c. Doppler effect

A

35
Q

Which type of blood flow demonstrates a chaotic flow pattern?

a. stenotic
b. disturbed
c. parabolic
d. turbulent

A

d. turbulent

36
Q
Which type of blood flow would demonstrate the narrowest range of Doppler shift frequencies?
a. plug
b. laminar
c. parabolic
d, disturbed
A

a. plug

37
Q

the fast Fourier transform derives the Doppler ____.

a. color scale
b. spectrum
c. variance maps
d. power display

A

b. spectrum

38
Q

The horizontal presentation in the spectral display represents _____.

a. time
b. velocity
c. imaging depth
d. acceleration time

A

a. time

39
Q

A Doppler shift at 60 degrees is ____ what is would be at 0 degrees.

a. twice
b. one half of
c. three times
d. two thirds of

A

b. one half of

40
Q

Spectral broadening may be produced by ___.

a. low flow velocities
b. high wall filter settings
d. low Doppler gain settings

A

41
Q

Continuous-wave Doppler shifts are detected within the _____.

a. rage gate
b. near zone length
c. region of the transmitted beam
d. overlapped region of the transmitting and receiving beams

A

d. overlapped region of the transmitting and receiving beams

42
Q

Motion toward the transducer demonstrates ____.

b. flow below the baseline
c. a positive Doppler shift

A

c. a positive Doppler shift

43
Q

Which of the following is an advantage of pulsed Doppler?

a. Sensitivity of low flow velocities is increased
b. Higher operating frequencies can be utilized
c. Depth of sample volume can be accurately selected
d. higher frequency shifts can be displayed without aliasing

A

c. Depth of sample volume can be accurately selected.

44
Q

The normal adult circulatory system contains ____liters of blood.

a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6

A

c. 5

45
Q

Poise is a unit given for ____.

a. denisty
b. velocity
c. viscosity
d. pressure

A

c. viscosity

46
Q

Which of the following Doppelr displays cannot determine flow direction?

a. Color
b. Power
c. Spectrum
d. Continuous wave

A

B. Power

47
Q

Which of the following pulsed Doppler techniques is the most likely to demonstrate slow flow velocities in deep vessels?

a. color Doppler
b. Duplex imaging
c. Power Doppler
d. Spectral analysis

A

C. Power Doppler

48
Q

Determining the direction of the Doppler shift voltages is accomplished by the _____.

a. autocorrelation
b. spectrum analyzer
c. fast Fourier transform

A

49
Q

Echoes arrive from the sample volume depth at a rate equal to _____.

a. the pulse repetition frequency
b. twice the pulse repetition frequency
c. one half of the pulse repetition frequency
d. one quarter of the pulse repetition frequency

A

a. the pulse reception frequency

50
Q

Poiseuille’s equation states that, if the flow rate increases, the ______.

a. tube length has increased
b. tube diameter has increased
c. pressure difference has decreased
d. viscosity of the fluid has increased

A

b. tube diameter has increased