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Flashcards in Chapter 5 & 6 Deck (30)
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1

Digestion

process by which food is broken down in the go tract to release nutrients in forms the body can absorb

2

absorption

process by which nutrients are taken into cells that line the GI tract

3

transport

movement of nutrients though the circulatory system from one area of the body to another

4

metabolism

sum of the vast number of chemical changes in the cell that ultimately product the material that are essential for energy, tissue building and metabolic controls

5

salivary amylase

starch-splitting enzyme in the mouth that is secreted by the salivary glands
commonly called ptyalin (spittle)

6

chyme

semifluid food mass in the GI tract that is present after gastric digestion

7

gastrin

- hormone that helps with gastric motility
- stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach
- stimulates the chief cells to secrete pepsinogen

8

pepsin

main gastric enzyme specific to proteins
- begins breaking large protein molecules into shorter-chain polypeptides
- gastric hydrochloric acid is necessary for its activation.

9

pancreatic amylase

major starch-splitting enzyme
- secreted by the pancreas
- acts in the small intestine

10

trypsin

protein-splitting enzyme
- produced in the pancreas
- released into the small intestine
- inactive precursor trypsinogen activated by enterokinase

11

chymotripsin

protein-splitting milk curdling pancreatic enzymes
- activated in the small intestine from the precursor chymotrypsinogen
- breaks specific amino acid peptide links of protein

12

carboxypeptidase

protein enzyme that splits off the carboxyl group (-COOH) at the end of peptide chains

13

pancreatic lipase

major fat splitting enzyme
- produced by the pancreas
- secreted into the small intestine to digest fat

14

mucosal folds

large visible folds of the mucous lining of the small intestine that increase the absorbing surface area

15

villi

small protrusions from the surface membrane
- fingerlike projections that cover the mucosal surfaces of the small intestine
- further increase the absorbing surface area
- visible through a regular microscope

16

microvilli

extremely small hair like projections
- cover all villi on surface of small intestine
- greatly extend the total absorbing surface area
- visible through an electron microscope

17

catabolism

metabolic process of breaking down large substances to yield smaller building blocks

18

anabolism

metabolic process of building large substances from smaller parts
- opposite of catabolism

19

glycogenesis

anabolic process of creating stored glycogen from glucose

20

lipogenesis

anabolic process of forming fat

21

adipose tissue

storage site for excess fat

22

gluconeogenesis

formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substances (ex: amino acids)

23

thermic effect of food

an increase in energy expenditure caused by the activities of digestion, absorption, transport, and storage of ingested food
- a meal that consists of a usual mixture of carbs, protein, and fat increases the energy expenditure equivalent to approximately 10% of the foods energy content
- ex: 300 kcal pizza would elicit an energy expenditure of 30 kcal to digest the food

24

calorie

a measure of heat
- the energy necessary to do work is measured as the amount of heat produced by the body's work
- the energy value of a food is expressed as the number of kilocalories that a specified portion of the food will yield when it is oxidized in the body

25

resting energy expenditure (REE)

the amount of energy (in kcal) needed by the body for the maintenance of life at rest over a 24 hour period
- often used interchangeably with the term basal energy expenditure, but in actuality it is slightly higher

26

basal energy expenditure (BEE)

the amount of energy (in kcal) needed by the body for maintenance of life when a person is at complete digestive, physical, mental, thermal, and emotion rest
- ex: 10-12 hours after eating and 12-18 hours after physical activity
- measured immediately upon waking

27

thyroxine (T4)

- thyroid prohormone
- the active hormone is T3
- the major controller of basal metabolic rate

28

adaptive thermogenesis

an adjustment to heat production in response to changing environmental influence (external temperature, diet, etc.)

29

what makes up the total energy requirement

RMR, physical activities, and thermic effect of food

30

maintenance of daily energy balance

food energy intake must match body energy output