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Flashcards in chapter 5 Deck (19):

the volume of a living organism is proportional to the number of cells in its body. Each cell needs oxygen & nutrients to get rid of products such as carbon dioxide. The smallest organisms can absorb nutrients and get rid of waste by diffusion through their outer membranes. Do you think larger organisms can do the same? Why?

No. It would take longer to completely diffuse as the diffusion distance is too big.


What are some adaptations of exchange surfaces?

1- Large SA
2- Moist surface - acts as a solvent for diffusion
3- short diffusion distance (usually one cell thick)
4- can maintain a steep concentration gradient (by having a good blood supply)


Why do we need specialized exchange surfaces?

- Small SA:V because surface is too small to provide sufficient passage across
- Diffusion distance is too large
- Active process so it requires more O2 and glucose for respiration


Why do unicellular organisms have a large SA:V ratio?

Because they can achieve exchange of substances by diffusion across the cell membrane


What does it mean when large multicellular organisms have a small SA:V ratio?

It means that their outer surface is not big enough to exchange substances fast enough to keep them alive. Hence, they have specialized exchange surfaces.


Name four general things that need to be exchanged between organisms and their environment.

Respiratory gases, nutrients, excretory products and heat


Name four factors that affect the rate of diffusion of substances into cells.

Temperature, size of substances, size of diffusion surface, & the diffusion gradient


How do insects reduce water loss?

- Waterproof coverings over their body surfaces.
- Small SA:V ratio to minimize the area over which water is lost


What are tracheae?

An internal network of tubes that insects use to diffuse respiratory gases. They are supported by strengthened rings to prevent them from collapsing.


What do the tracheae divide into?

Smaller tubes called tracheoles. These extend throughout all the body tissues of the insect. Atmospheric air, with the oxygen it contains, is therefore brought directly to the respiring tissues.


What are the two ways in which respiratory gases move in and out of the tracheal system?

- Down a diffusion gradient.
- Ventilation


How do gases enter and leave the tracheae?

Through tiny pores on the body surface called spiracles which open and close by a valve.


What are the limitations of the insect tracheal system?

It relies mostly on diffusion to exchange gases between the environment and the cells.


What adaptations do the leaves show for gas exchange?

- a thin, flat shape that provides a large SA & a short diffusion pathway
- Many small pores (stomata) mostly in the lower epidermis
-numerous interconnecting air spaces that occur throughout the mesophyll


What are stomata?

Stomata are minute pores that occur mainly on the leaves.


Outline how the diaphragm and intercostal muscles cause inspiration.

- intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract, pulling the ribs upwards and out.
- volume of the thorax increases
- pressure inside the thorax is reduced
- it is below atmospheric pressure so air is forced into the lungs because a pressure gradient is created


Some scientists say that the process of breathing is passive & others say it is active. Discuss

- pressure change causes the air to move in
- doesnt require energy
-The diaphragm and intercostals must contract for breathing to happen
- muscle contraction requires energy


What is the role of haemoglobin?

Transporting oxygen


How could haemoglobin be efficient at transporting haemoglobin?

it must readily associate with oxygen at the surface where gas exchange takes place and readily dissociate from oxygen at those tissues requiring it