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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (15):
1

Stages of Fetal Development

Zygotic (germinal)

Embryonic

Fetal

2

Zygotic

First Stage of Development
From conception upon to implantation
Cell division

3

Embryonic

2nd Stage of Development
Support structures (amnion, chorion, placenta, umbilical cord)
Body organs and systems
Cell migration, differentiation, and death

4

Fetal

3rd Stage of Development
Fatter and Bigger by hyperplasia (# of cells +) & hypertrophy (size of ind. cell +)

5

The fastest rate of human growth occurs during the?
(From slides in class)

Prenatal life

6

During the first year of life, gains in body weight average about?
(From slides in class)

200% increase

7

Changing Ways to give birth

Cultural differences
Cohort changes

8

Prematurity

Normal gestation =
Normal weight = above 5.5 lb (US average is 7.5 lb)

Born early (less than 38wks or 36wks: Age varies from study to study)
Born tiny (Small for gestational age)

9

Prematurity- Birth Weight

Small for gestational age (SGA)
Full term (40wks)
Preterm (36wks of less)

Extremely low birth weight (ELBW): less than 500g
Very low birth weight (VLBW): 500 - 1500g
Low birth weight (LBW): 1500 - 2500g

10

Cause of Preterm Birth & Birth Weight

Maternal factors
Hormone levels
Infection of the upper genital tract
Stress
Genetic factors
Poor nutrition
Hypoxia (oxygen deficiency)
Fetal stress

11

Prematurity Problems

Lung immaturity
Respiratory distress syndrome
Lack of oxygen
Brain damage
Low muscle tone
Less muscle strength
Greater range of motion
Delayed onset of motor development

12

Micro Preemies

Early as 22 wks gestational age
Very small… VLBW babies
Viability
Quality of life

13

NICU; are incubatory necessary, but what are the effects?

Problems
Attachment
Unnatural
Sensory deprivation…NO!

14

Enriching the NICU Environment

Waterbed treatment & massage therapy
Side-lying position
Kangaroo Care
Gain weight faster
Regulate sleep quicker
Leave hospital earlier

15

Cerebral Palsy Associated with Prematurity and SGA

Most babies with CP…
SGA & premature
Brain lesions
Abnormal muscle tone (Hypotonia) & Spasticity
Mentally retarded
Associated with…
SES, prenatal care, maternal age, teratogens, & physical trauma