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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (48):
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1. What system is the first line of defense against a hostile surrounding environment?

Integumentary System

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2. What are the two components of the cutaneous membrane?

a. Epidermis and dermis

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3. Describe the hypodermis.

a. A layer of loose connective tissue - SQ layer

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4. List and describe the 9 functions of the integumentary system.

a. Protection
b. Excretion
c. Maintenance
d. Production of melanin
e. Production of keratin
f. Synthesis of vitamin D3
g. Storage of lipids
h. Detection
i. Coordination of the immune response

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6. What kind of tissue makes up the epidermis? Describe this tissue.

a. Stratified squamous epithelium

b. Several layers of cells that are thin, flat, and irregular in shape.

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7. With the help of Spotlight Figure 5-3, label the five layers of the epidermis on thick skin on the following diagram. Which layer is absent in thin skin?

a. Stratum corneum

b. Stratum lucidum - Layer is in thick skin but not thin.

c. Stratum granulosum

d. Stratum spinosum

e. Stratum basale 

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Describe the structure and function of the stratum basale. Use the terms epidermal ridges, dermal papillae, basal cells, Merkel cells, tactile disc, and melanocytes in your description.

a. It is the deepest layer of the epidermis.

b. The stratum basale and the underlying dermis interlock, increasing the strength of the bond

c. Epidermal ridges extend into the dermis and are adjacent to dermal papillae, which are dermal projections that extend into the epidermis.

a. The ridges and papillae are important for the strength of the attachment between epidermis and dermis.

d. Basal cells are stem cells that divide to replace the more superficial keratinocytes.

e. Tactile cells are scattered among the stratum basale. The tactile cells and a nerve ending is the tactile disk.

a. Tactile cells are sensitive to touch

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9. Describe the structure and function of the stratum spinosum. Use the terms desmosomes and dendritic cells in your description.

a. Stem cells divides and is pushed superficial from the stratum basale. The stratum consists of 8 to 10 layers of keratinocytes that are bounded together by desmosomes.
b. Contains cells that participate in the immune response - dendritic cells
a. Defense against microorganisms and superficial skin cancers.

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Describe the structure and function of the stratum granulosum. Use the terms keratin and keratinhyaline in your description.

a. 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes. Most have stopped dividing and have started making large amounts of keratin. The cells grow thinner and flatter, their plasma membrane thicken and become less permeable.
b. The keratinocytes make a protein called keratohyalin which forms dense cytoplasmic granules that promote dehydration as well as aggregation and cross-linking of keratin fibers.

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11. Where is stratum lucidum found, and what sets it apart from the other layers of the epidermis?

a. Found in thick skin that covers the stratum granulosum.
b. Cells are flattened, densely packed, largely without organelles, and filled with keratin.

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12. Describe the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Use the terms keratinization and dead in your description.

a. 15 - 30 layers of keratinized cells.
b. Keratinization - "cornification" - formation of protective, superficial layers of cells filled with keratin.
c. The dead cells in each layer of the stratum corneum remain tightly interconnected by desmosomes.

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13. What is the difference between sensible and insensible perspiration?

a. Insensible - unable to see of feel the water loss
b. Sensible - Very aware of water loss

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14. Why are severe burns dangerous?

a. The damage breaks connections between superficial and deeper layers of the epidermis. Damage to the stratum corneum makes it a less effective as a water barrier, the rate of insensible perspiration increases.

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What produces the orange-yellow pigment in skin? Where do we get this substance from?

a. Carotene - orange vegetables

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16. What produces the red-yellow or brown-black pigment in the skin? What cells produce this pigment?

a. Melanin - melanocytes

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What accounts for the differences in skin pigmentation among individuals?

a. Where the transfer occurs of the pigmentation colors the keratinocyes.
a. Pale skin - transfer takes place in the stratum spinosum - cells more superficial lose their pigmentation
b. Dark-skinned the melanosomes are larger and more numerous, the transfer may occur in the stratum granuloseum.

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18. Besides giving skin its color, describe the protective function of melanin.

Protects against UV radiation by increasing the production of melanin.

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What happens to the color of your skin when it gets warm, as if in a hot shower? Why does the skin change color?

a. Becomes red
b. The superficial blood vessels dilate so the skin can lose heat.

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20. Explain the following conditions:

Cyanosis, Jaundice, Vitiligo

a. Cyanosis - A decreased oxygen level in the hemoglobin - which turns a darker red but seen on the skin as bluish color.
b. Jaundice - The liver is unable to excrete bile, a yellowish pigment accumulates in body fluids
c. Vitiligo - individuals lose their melanocytes, causing white patches on otherwise normal skin

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21. Compare and contrast basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanomas. In what part of the skin do they originate? Which is the most dangerous form of cancer?

a. Basal cell carcinoma
a. Originates in the stratum basale
b. Squamous cell carcinoma
a. Areas of sun-exposed skin
c. Malignant melanomas
a. Melanocytes grow rapidly and metastasize through the lymphatic system and/or blood vessels
b. Most dangerous form of skin cancer

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What is the ABCD rule used to detect a melanoma?

a. Asymmetry - one half is unlike the other half. Typically raised, may also ooze or bleed
b. Border - The border is irregular
c. Color - Generally mottled with a combination of tan, brown, black, red, pink, white, and blue tones
d. Diameter - Usually more than 6 mm in diameter
e. Evolving - Benign lesions look the same over time - Any change in size, shape, or color signals possible melanoma

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23. Explain the relationships between cholesterol, cholecalciferol, and calcitriol.

a. Stratum spinosum and stratum basale convert a cholesterol-related steroid compound into cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). The liver converts cholecalciferol into an intermediary product used by the kidneys to synthesize the hormone calcitriol. Calcitriol is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphate ions.

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Why is limited exposure to sunlight beneficial?

a. Sunlight produces vitamin D3, which helps with the absorption of vitamin D3.

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25. List the two layers of the dermis. What tissue type is present in each layer, and what functional attributes do these tissues provide to each of the two layers?

a. Papillary layer - Areolar tissues - contains capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and sensory nerve fibers
b. Reticular layer - Dense irregular connective tissue containing both collagen and elastic fibers.

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26. What characteristics do collagen and elastic fibers impart to the dermis?

a. Gives the dermis strength and elasticity.
b. Collagen fibers are very strong and resist stretching
a. They can easily bend and twist
Elastic fibers permit stretching and then recoil to their original length.

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What is skin turgor? What is the clinical application of this concept?

a. Water content of the skin helps maintain its flexibility and resilience.
b. Indicates dehydration - when the skin is pinched and the skin stays tented is a sign of dehydration.

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28. What are cleavage lines? Describe their clinical significance.

a. Collagen and elastic fibers are arranged in parallel bundles oriented to resist the forces applied to the skin during normal movement.
b. A cut made parallel to a tension line will usually remain closed and heal with little scarring, where a cut made at a right angle to a tension line will be pulled open, resulting in greater scarring.

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Describe the blood supply in the skin.

a. Cutaneous plexus - the deeper layer of blood vessels
a. Supply both the adipose tissues of the subcutaneous layer and the tissues of the integument.
b. Subpapillary plexus - Provides blood to capillary loops that follow the contours of the epidermis - dermis boundary.

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30. Describe the location and function of the following touch sensors.

a. tactile discs
a. Deep layers of the epidermis
b. Fine touch and pressure receptors
b. tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles
a. The dermis - dermal papillae
b. Light touch
c. lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle
a. Reticular layer
b. Deep pressure and vibration

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What are functions of the hypodermis? What two tissues are most common in the hypodermis?

a. Stabilizing the position of the skin in relation to underlying tissues, skeletal muscles or other organs
b. Adipose tissue and large arteries and veins

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32. Why is the hypodermis a favorable location for a subcutaneous injection?

a. Limited number of capillaries and no vital organs.

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What are the functions of hair?

a. Protect the surface of the skin.
a. On the head protect the skin from UV, help cushion light impacts to the head, and insulate the skull.
b. Nose, ears, and eyelashes get foreign particles and insects out of those area.
c. Eyebrows keep sweat out of eyes

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35. Describe the function of the following structures:

Root hair plexus

Arrector pili

a. root hair plexus - sensory nerves surrounds the base of each hair follicle which allows you to feel the movement of every hair.
b. arrector pili - When the muscle is stimulated, the muscle contracts, pulling on the follicle and forcing the hair to stand erect

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36. What is the difference between vellus and terminal hairs? Where would you find each?

a. Vellus - are fine "peach fuzz" hairs
a. Located over much of the body surfaces
b. Terminal - are heavy, more deeply pigmented, and sometimes curly
a. Located on the head, armpits and pubic areas after puberty

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The chemical ___ gives color to skin and hair.

melanin

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What category of gland is a sebaceous gland? (categorized by mode of secretion) What product does it excrete? What function does this secretion provide?

a. Exocrine
b. Sebum
c. It inhibits the growth of bacteria, lubricates, and protects the hair shaft, and conditions the surrounding skin

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Compare and contrast the locations where apocrine and merocrine sweat glands can be found. What products do they secrete?

a. Apocrine
a. Location: Armpits, around the nipples, and in the pubic region - they secrete into hair follicles
b. Secrete: sticky, cloudy, and potentially odorous secretion
b. Merocrine
a. Location: Throughout the integumentary system. Palms and soles have the highest numbers. They secrete onto the surface of the skin.
b. Secrete: water, sodium chloride

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40. What are the functions of merocrine glands?

a. Cooling the surface of the skin to reduce body temperature
b. Excreting water and electrolytes
c. Providing protection from environmental hazards

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41. Where are mammary and ceruminous glands found in the body? What products do they secrete?

a. Mammary
a. Location: Breast - interaction between sex hormones and pituitary hormones controls their development and secretion
b. Ceruminous
a. Location: Modified sweat glands in the passageway of the external ear.
b. Secrete: cerumen (earwax)

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43. Cassie was cutting up some vegetables for supper. She accidently cut herself on her index finger when she was cutting into a tomato. Please trace the steps of how Cassie’s finger will heal. Go through the four steps for healing.

a. Inflammation phase
b. Migration phase
c. Proliferation phase
d. Scarring phase

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Inflammation phase

Bleeding occurs at the site of injury immediately after the injury, and mast cells in the region trigger an inflammatory response.

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Migration phase

After several hours, a scab has formed and cells of the stratum basale are migrating along the edges of the wound. Phagocytic cells remove debris, and more of these cells are arriving with the enhanced circulation in the area. Clotting around the edges of the affected area partially isolates the region.

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Proliferation phase

About a week after the injury, the scab has been undermined by epidermal cells migrating over the collagen fiber meshwork produced by fibroblast proliferation and activity. Phagocytic activity around the site has almost ended, and the fibrin clot is dissolving.

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Scarring phase

After several weeks, the scab has been shed, and the epidermis is complete. A shallow depression marks the injury site, but the fibroblasts in the dermis continue to create scar tissue that will gradually elevate the overlying epidermis.

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44. Compare and contrast first, second, and third-degree burns.

a. 1st degree burns - only the surface of the epidermis is damaged. Skin redness and can be painful.
b. 2nd degree burn - the entire epidermis and perhaps some of the dermis are damaged. Hair follicles and glands are usually not affected. Blistering, pain, and swelling occur.
c. 3rd degree burn - Destroy the epidermis and dermis, extending into the subcutaneous layer. These burns are less painful because sensory nerves are destroyed.

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45. What three functions are compromised by a burn?

a. Fluid and electrolyte balance
b. Thermoregulation
c. Protection from infection

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46. What type of burn would require a skin graft?

a. Full-thickness or 3rd degree

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List the effects of aging on the integumentary system.

a. The epidermis thins as basal cell activity declines
b. The number of dendritic cells decreases to about 50%
c. Vitamin D3 production declines by about 75%
d. Melanocyte activity declines
e. The blood supply to the dermis is reduced
f. Hair follicles stop functioning or produce thinner, finer hairs
g. The dermis thins, and the elastic fiber network decreases in size
h. Secondary sexual characteristics in hair and body fat distribution begin to fade
i. Skin repairs proceed more slowly