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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (22):


Relates to the medical care given to pregnant women before their babies are born.


Biomedical model of health

Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model practised by doctors and health professionals and is associated with the diagnosis, treatment and cure of disease.


Bubonic plague

An infectious disease that is caused by bacteria transmitted to humans by fleas from infected rats.


Cardiovascular diseases

Diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels in the body and interfere with the circulation of blood throughout the body.


CT scans

Computed tomography scan, which is a specialised x-ray taken from many different angles to build a three-dimensional picture of the body.


Fertility rates

The number of live births per 1000 women aged 15–49 in one year.


Health promotion

The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.


Infectious diseases

Diseases caused by micro-organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi that can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.


Intersectoral collaboration

Having groups from many sectors such as government, health and the private sector working together to achieve a common goal.


Life expectancy

An indication of how long a person can expect to live if current death rates do not change.


New public health

An approach to health that expands the traditional focus on individual behaviour change to one that considers the ways in which physical, sociocultural and political environments impact on health. Also referred to as the social model of health.


Old public health

Government actions that focused on changing the physical environment to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing safe water, sanitation and sewage disposal, improved nutrition, improved housing conditions and better work conditions.


Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion

An approach to health developed by the World Health Organization that aims to reduce inequalities in health. It reflects the social model of health and provides five action areas that can be used as a basis for improving health status, all of which are centred around three strategies for health promotion which are enabling, mediating and advocacy.


Palliative care

An approach designed to improve the quality of life of patients with a life-threatening illness with little or no prospect of a cure. This is achieved through the prevention and relief of suffering and the treatment of pain.



The spread of infectious disease through human populations across a large region such as multiple continents or worldwide.


PET scan

Involves having an injection of a small amount of radioactive material, which enables a scanner to build up a picture of the body.


Public health

The ways in which governments monitor, regulate and promote health and wellbeing and
prevent illness.



Laws that require a person, animal, plant or any type of material that might be carrying an infectious agent to be kept isolated to prevent the spread of disease.



The process of eliminating contact between humans and hazardous wastes, including human and animal faeces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage and grey water), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes.


Social model of health

An approach that recognises improvements in health and wellbeing can only be achieved by directing effort towards addressing the physical, sociocultural and political environments of health that have an impact on individuals and population groups.



A bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. Without treatment, it can damage the heart, brain or other organs, and can be life threatening. It can be passed from mother to an unborn child.


Venereal disease

A disease contracted by sexual intercourse with a person already infected; a sexually transmitted infection.