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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (13):
1

Anaemia

A condition characterised by a reduced ability of the body to deliver enough oxygen to the cells due to a lack of healthy red blood cells.

2

Antioxidants

Compounds in foods that neutralise free radicals.

3

Atherosclerosis

The build-up of plaque on blood vessel walls, making it harder for blood to get through.

4

Body mass index (BMI)

A statistical measure of body mass calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by height (in m2). A score of 18.6–24.9 is considered a healthy weight. Between 25–29.9 is considered overweight and 30 and over is considered obese.

5

Cholesterol

A type of fat required for optimal functioning of the body that in excess can lead to a range of health concerns including the blocking of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Can be ‘bad’ low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or ‘good’ high density lipoprotein (HDL).

6

Dental caries

Decay of teeth caused by a breakdown in the tissues that make up the tooth

7

Energy-dense

(foods) foods that contain significant amounts of fat, carbohydrates and/or protein, therefore contributing large amounts of energy to the diet.

8

Fortified

(foods) when a nutrient has been artificially added to food to increase its nutritional value.

9

Free radicals

Molecules formed when oxygen is metabolised. Free radicals can damage healthy body cells and increase the risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.

10

Hypertension

High blood pressure.

11

Neural tube defects

Conditions characterised by damage to the brain and spine, and to the nerve tissue of the spinal cord during prenatal development. Examples include spina bifida and anencephaly.

12

Nutrient dense

(foods) foods that contain a large amount of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals.

13

Periodontitis

A condition characterised by in ammation and infection of the tissues that support the teeth.