Flashcards in Chapter 5 "Fair Housing Laws" Deck (12)
Civil Rights Act of 1866
For more then a century, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 would be of little importance in combatting housing discrimination, primarily because courts interpreted the law to prohibit public, or governmental, discrimination only.
1968 Supreme Court rule, in Jones v. Mayer
that the act “bars all racial discrimination, private as well as public, in a sale or rental of property, and that the statue, thus construed, is a valid exercise of the power of Congress to enforce the Thirteen Amendment.”
Plessy v. Ferguson, Supreme Court 1896
Opened the door for institutional segregation.
The famous “separate but equal” decision legalized the separation of races in everything from schools to public accommodations.
Brown v. the Topeka Board of Education, Supreme Court 1954
This ruling outlawed the separation of the races in public schools, and it was soon followed by other rulings outlawing the separation of the races.
Shelly v. Kraemer, U.S. Supreme Court, 1948
Ruled that the enforcement of racially restrictive covenants by state courts violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment. This, persons were precluded from using the judicial system to enforce racial discrimination.
The Fair Housing Act of 1968
Race, color, religion, national origin
The 1974 Housing and Community Development Act
Added sex to race, color, religion, and national origin.
The 1988 Fair Housing Amendments Act
Added persons with physical or mental handicaps; families with children to race, color, religion, national origin and sex.
Channeling of home seekers to particular areas on the basis of race, religion, country of origin, or other protected class, either to maintain the homogeneity of an area or to change the character of an area in order to create a speculative situation.
Refusing to make loans or otherwise denying financial assistance for housing in particular areas.
1995 HUD Memorandum
Memorandum on advertising terminology with the purpose of establishing procedures for investigating allegations of discriminatory advertising.