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What are the four major groups of eukaryotic organisms?

1. helminth 2. fungi 3. algae 4. protozoa


What are the 3 cellular features of a helminth organism?

1. complex, multicellular organisms ranging in size from the microscopic filarial parasites to the giant tapeworms 2. Presence of attachment organs 3. Characterized by ability to feed and live on living hosts


What are the 2 reproduction patterns of a helminth organism?

1. Sexual reproduction patterns 2. Some can reproduce by self-fertilization also known as parthenogenesis



What is the importance of a helminth organism?

Some helminths are of medical importance such as it's use against diseases characterized by an overactive immune response.


What are the 3 cellular features of a fungi organism?

1. Cell wall contains chitin 2. Less definition between the cells 3. The hyphae of higher fungi have porous partitions called septa


What are the reproduction patterns of a fungi organism?

Sexual and Asexual reproduction patterns


What are the 3 importances of a fungi organism?

1. Important in the manufacture of antibiotics 2. Acts as ‘decomposers’ 3. Important in the food industry


What are the 2 cellular features of an algae organism?

1. Chlorophyll bearing 2. Photosynthetic non-vascular plants whose body is a simple thallus w/o differentiation into roots, stems, and leaves


What are the two reproduction patterns of an algae organism?

Sexual and Asexual reproduction patterns


What are the 4 importances of an algae organism?

1. Source of oxygen 2. Can be a source of food supplement 3. Important ecologically since it serves as food source for other animals 4. Larger algae provide shelter and habitat for fish and other invertebrate animals


What are the 4 cellular features of a protozoa organism?

1. Able to move independently 2. Vary substantially in size and shape 3. Have no cell walls 4. Alternate between a free-living vegetative form known as trophozoite and a resting form called a cyst



What are the two reproduction patterns of a protozoa organism?

Sexual and Asexual reproduction patterns


What is the importance of a protozoa organism?

Play an important role as zooplankton


What is Endosymbiosis?

refers to the hypothesized process by which prokaryotes gave rise to the first eukaryotic cells.


What is one of the most important evolutionary events?



What is Mitochondria?

takes in and breaks down the nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP),a molecule cells that use as a source of energy, process known as cellular respiration


What is the other term for Mitochondria?

also known as the power house of the cell


What are Chloroplasts?


similar to mitochondria but are found only in the cells of plants and some algae; converts sunlight into energy that can be used by the cell, a process known as photosynthesis


What are Cilia?

slender, microscopic, hair-like structures or organelles that extend from the surface of nearly all mammalian cells (multiple or single)


What is the flagella structure?

the eukaryotic flagellum is a long, rod-like structure that is surrounded by an extension of the cell membrane like a sheath


What is the anoxeme?

is a filament, the bulk of the structure which is anchored in a basal body


What is the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?

– associated with the production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones; referred to as ‘smooth’ because it is not studded with ribosomes and is associated with smooth slippery fats


What is the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?

involved in some protein production, protein folding, quality control, and dispatch; referred to as ‘rough’ because it is studded with ribosomes


What is the Nucleus?

an organelle found in eukaryotic cells; contains the majority of the cell’s genetic material (DNA)


What is the Golgi Apparatus?

responsible for transporting, modifying, and packaging proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations


What are Vesicles?

a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer; formed naturally during the processes of secretion, uptake, and transport of materials within the cytoplasm


What are the Lysosomes?

membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of enzymes capable of breaking down all types of biological polymers – proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids


What are Vacuoles?

membrane-enclosed fluid filled sac found in the cells of plants including fungi; can be large organelles occupying between 30% and 90% of a cell by volume


What is the Chitin?

a fibrous substance consisting of polysaccharides and forming the major constituent in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi


What is the Saprobe?

an organism that derives its nourishment from non-living or decaying organic matter