Chapter 5: Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Flashcards Preview

Bio 93: Exam 1 > Chapter 5: Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5: Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Deck (47)
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1

What is dehydration?

Synthesis (making) of a polymer

2

How does dehydration work?

One polymer : One monomer

- Water is taken out -

OH from polymer : H from monomer

- Monomer joins Polymer to make a long polymer

3

What is hydrolysis?

Breaking of a polymer

4

How does hydrolysis work?

Water is added to a long polymer

A H from the polymer binds with the OH of the water, making a monomer and breaking off

5

Carbohydrates are polymers of _______.

Sugar

6

Carbohydrate monomers are ___________.

Monosaccharides

7

Two monosaccharides are called ___________________.

Disaccharides

8

The covalent bind between two monosaccharides is called a _________________.

Glycosidic linkage

9

Carbohydrate polymers are polysaccharides.

There are two types, what are they?

1. Storage Polysaccharides
- for fuel
- starch for plan fuel
- glycogen for animal fuel

2. Structural Polysaccharides
- for building material
- cellulose in plant cell walls

10

Proteins are polymers of ____________.

Amino acids

11

All protein monomers have an _______ group and a ________ group.

Amino, carboxyl

12

Is glucose soluble in water?

Yes, it is hydrophilic

13

The covalent bond between two amino acids is called a _______________.

Peptide bond

14

What are the four levels of protein structure?

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary

15

What happens in primary protein structure?

- There's an amino acid sequence
- It could contain:
- hydrogen bond
- ionic bond
- van der waals

16

What happens in secondary protein structure?

- Amino acid sequence either forms:
• a helix (loop-d-loop)
• b strand (b pleated sheet)

17

What happens in tertiary protein structure?

The a helix or b stands fold up into a 3D shape

18

What happens in quaternary protein structure?

Two polypeptides come together to make a protein

19

How is protein structure affected in a sickel-cell hemoglobin?

- One of the amino acids in primary structure is different
- Different folding in secondary
- Different shaping in tertiary due to distorted H bonding
- Hemoglobin clumps up too closely together rather than binding to oxygen

20

Why are lipids not considered polymers?

Not composed of chains of repeating subunits

21

What is denaturation?

When the protein loses its shape

{$$} --> ~~~~

22

Why does denaturation happen?

Change in:
- pH
- salt concentration
- temperature

23

Are denatured proteins functional? Why or why not?

No.

The protein's function depends on its structure

24

What is renaturation?

When the denatured protein refolds back into a normal protein

25

What renatures the denatured protein?

The Chaperon protein

26

What do nucleic acids do?

Store and transmit hereditary info

27

What are the two types of nucleic acids?

DNA
RNA

28

What do nucleotides consist of?

- Phosphate group
- 5-carbon pentose sugar
- Nitrogenous base

29

What are pyrimidines? Which nucleotides are pyrimidines?

Compounds that produce RNA and DNA

C T U
{__} {__} {__}

^single ring structures

(cYtosine, thYmine = pYrimidine)

30

What are purines? Which nucleotides are purines?

Compounds that produce DNA and RNA

A G
{_}{__} {_}{__}

^double ring structures