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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Test Deck (85):
1

Who created the periodic table?

Dmitri Mendeleev

2

Dmitri Mendeleev first listed the elements in order of ...?

Increasing atomic mass

3

In Mendeleevs first model, there was a new row every time...?

A pattern started to repeat

4

What was true f the groups that Mendeleev made on his table?

They had similar properties

5

Why did Mendeleev leave gaps in the periodic table?

Because he wanted to create room for elements that would be discovered - he predicted their properties

6

Why did we change the order of the periodic table from Mendeleevs original model?

There were discrepancies if elements were put in order of atomic mass

7

Who proposed the concept of the atomic numer?

Henry Mosley

8

Def: When elements are arranged according to their atomic numbers, elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals

The periodic law

9

Elements in the same column have similar _______ ______________, _______ _________, and similar ___ ________.

1. Electron configurations
2. Valence electrons
3. Dot diagrams

10

Group is another word for

Column (Vertical)

11

Period is another word for

Row (horizontal)

12

What are the main groups in the periodic table?

1, 2, and 13 - 18

13

Group 1
- how many valence electrons?
- name?
- oxidation number?
- has to lose an electron to form a __ ion.

- 1
- Alkali metals
- +1
- +1 ion

14

Def: A charged particle

Ion

15

Def: Oxidation number

The charge of a particle when it becomes an ion

16

Group 2
- valence electrons?
- name?
- lose 2 electrons to forms a __ ion.

- 2
- alkaline earth metals
- +2 ion

17

Group 13 has _ valence electrons

3

18

Group 14 has _ valence electrons

4

19

Group 15 has _ valence electrons

5

20

Group 16
- _ valence electrons
- gains 2 electrons to forms a __ ion

- 6
- -2 ion

21

Group 17
- _ valence electrons
- name?
- gain 1 electron to form a __ ion

- 7
- Halogens
- -1 ion

22

Group 18
- _ valence electrons
- name?
- oxidation number?

- 8
- Noble gases
- 0
*dont gain or lose electrons

23

What was true of the groups in the modern periodic table?

They have similar properties, similar electron configurations, and similar dot diagrams

24

Why was it so impressive that Mendeleev left blank spots on his table?

The gaps in his table represented elements that had not been discovered yet; he predicted their properties correctly

25

What scientist came up with the modern periodic law?

Henry Mosley

26

What are valance electron?

Electrons that are found in the outermost shell - determines the properties of that element

27

What is the modern periodic law?

The properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers

28

Horizontal rows are called what?

Period

29

Vertical columns are called what?

Columns, families

30

Xenon is in what group and what period?

Group 18, period 5

31

What are the main group elements?

Columns 1 and 2 (s sublevel) and columns 13 - 18 (p sublevel)

32

Describe the alkali metals

- Column 1, s1, 1 dot
- very reactive metals
- only found in compounds in nature because they are so reactive
- lose one electron to look like the noble gas in the preceding row

33

Describe alkaline earth metals

-column 2, s2, 2 dots
- reactive metals
- lose 2 electrons to look like the noble gas in the preceding row

34

Describe the transition metals

- columns. 3 - 12, d sublevel, not very reactive

35

Describe the actinoid and lanthanoid series

- Lanthanoids are elements 58-71, f sublevel
- Actinoids are elements 90-103, f sublevel

36

Describe the halogens

- column 17, p5, 7 dots
- reactive nonmetals
- gain one electron to look like the noble gas in their row
- react with column one to form salts

37

What column with halogens react with to form salt?

Column one

38

What does "halogen" mean?

"Salt-maker"

39

Describe the noble gases

- column 18, p6, 8 dots (except for He)
- very stable, will not react

40

Where are the metals found on the periodic table?

Left side of the staircase

41

Where are the nonmetals found on the periodic table?

Right side of the staircase

42

Where are the metalloids found on the periodic table?

Metalloids are on the staircase (except for Al)

43

What family does hydrogen belong to?

Hydrogen is a family all by itself

44

Describe the properties of a metal

- 3 or fewer valence electrons
- good conductors
- shiny
- malleable
- ductile
- solids at room temp
- contain delocalized electrons

45

M,N,M? 3 or fewer valance electrons

Metal

46

M,N,M? Good conductors

Metal

47

M,N,M? Shiny

Metal

48

M,N,M? Malleable

Metals

49

M,N,M? Ductile

Metal

50

M,N,M? Solids at room temperature

Metal

51

M,N,M? Contain delocalized electrons

Metal

52

What are delocalized electrons?

Electrons that can move to conduct electricity

53

Describe the properties of a non metal

- 5 or more valance electrons
- poor conductors
- gases or brittle solids

54

M,N,M? 5 or more valance electrons

Non metal

55

M,N,M? Poor conductors

Nonmetal

56

M,N,M? Gases or brittle solids

Nonmetals

57

What is ionization energy?

The energy required to remove an electron

58

What is the pattern of ionization energy in a group? Why?

Increases from bottom to top - distance / shielding effect

59

What is the pattern of ionization energy in a period? Why?

Increases from left to right - Noble gas configuration / octet rule

60

What is meant by atomic radius?

The size of the atom

61

What is the pattern of atomic radius in a group? Why?

Increases from top to bottom - energy levels

62

What is the pattern of atomic radius in a period? Why?

Increases from right to left - Nuclear charge

63

What is electronegativity?

Attraction for electrons of an atom in a compound

64

What is the pattern of electronegativity in a group? Why?

Increases from top to bottom - distance shielding effect

65

What is the pattern of electronegativity in a period? Why?

- increases from left to right (omit noble gases) - noble gas configuration / octet rule

66

What is electron affinity?

Attraction for electrons of an atom

67

What is the pattern of electron affinity in a group? Why?

Increases from bottom to top - distance / shielding effect

68

What is the pattern of electron affinity in a period? Why?

Increases from left to right (omit noble gases) - noble gas configuration / octet rule

69

What is meant by nuclear charge?

The strength of attraction that the nuclear has for electrons - the more protons in the nucleus, the stronger the nuclear charge

70

What is meant by shielding effect?

Electrons in the inner shells can block the attraction between the nuclear symbol and the valence electrons - the greater the shielding effect, the less attraction there is between the nucleus and valence electrons

71

What is the pattern of ionic size in a group and a reído? What is the reasoning behind this pattern?

- cations are smaller than their original atom (energy levels)
- anions are bigger than the atoms (more electrons to attract even though the nuclear charge stayed the same)

72

What is an anion?where can they be found on the periodic table?

- A negative ion
- columns 16 and 17

73

What is a cation? Where can they be found on the periodic table?

- a positive ion
- columns 1 and 2

74

What group reacts with water to make alkaline solution?

Group 1 - alkali metals

75

What group is very reactive because they have one valence electron?

Alkali metals - group 1

76

If they can lose one electron they can achieve the octet rule

Alkali metals

77

Octet rule

Atoms tend to have either empty valance shells or full valance shells of eight electrons

78

What group has good conductors, is soft, and never found in nature as pure elements?

Alkali metals

79

What is the most reactive nonmetal group?

Halogens (17)

80

What group is highly reactive because the have 2 valence electrons?

Alkaline earth metals

81

What were noble gases once called?

Inert - implies it was impossible for them to react

82

What is the most common element in the universe?

Hydrogen

83

Hydrogen has _ proton(s) and _ electron(s)

1 proton
1 electron

84

Hydrogen is not flammable

False - very flammable

85

Alloy (def)

A solid or mixture of 2 or more metals