Chapter 5 The Structure And Function Of Large Biological Molecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 The Structure And Function Of Large Biological Molecules Deck (26)
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0
Q

Of the four main classes , which ones are macromolecules

A

Carbohydrates , proteins , and Nucleic acids

1
Q

What are the four main classes of molecules of organic compounds

A

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids

2
Q

What is the significance of the architecture if a large biological molecule?

A

Helps explain how that molecule works

3
Q

Polymer

A

A long molecule consisting of many similar to identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds

4
Q

Monomers

A

The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer

5
Q

The chemical mechanisms by which cells make and break down polymers are basically ______ in all cases

A

The same

6
Q

Enzyme

A

Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions

7
Q

How are monomers connected

A

By a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to one another with the loss of a water molecule

8
Q

Dehydration reaction

A

When a bond forms between two monomers each monomer contributes part of the water part of the water molecule that is released during the reaction: one monomer provides the hydroxyl group –OH While the other provides the hydrogen. This is repeated as monomers are added to the chain one by one making a polymer

9
Q

Polymers are disassembled to monomers by _____

A

Hydrolysis

10
Q

Hydrolysis

A

A process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction. Means to break using water

11
Q

Explain hydrolysis

A

The bond between the monomers is broken by the addition of a water molecule, with the hydrogen from the water attaching to the adjacent monomer

12
Q

Example of hydrolysis

A

Digestion within our bodies; the bulk of the organic material in our food is in the form of polymers that are much too large to enter our cells. Within the digestive tract, various enzymes attack the polymers, speeding up hydrolysis. The released monomers are then absorbed into the bloodstream for distribution to all body cells. Those cells can then use dehydration reactions to assemble the monomers into new different polymers that can perform specific functions required by the cell

13
Q

Carbohydrates

A

Includes both sugars and polymers of sugars

14
Q

The simplest carbohydrates

A

Monosaccharides or simple sugars . Which are monomers from which more complex carbohydrates are constructed

15
Q

Disaccharide

A

Double sugars consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond

16
Q

Polysaccharide

A

Polymers composed of many sugar building blocks

17
Q

Monosaccharides

A

Generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O.

18
Q

Glucose

A

C6H12O6. The most common monosaccharide, is of central importance in chemistry of life.

19
Q

Disaccharide

A

Consisted of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage

20
Q

Glycosidic linkage

A

A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction

21
Q

Polysaccharide

A

Macromolecules; polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Some serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells. Others serve as building materials for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism

22
Q

What determines the architecture and function of a polysaccharide

A

It’s sugar monomers and by the positions of its glycosidic linkages

23
Q

Starch

A

Plants store starch, A polymer of glucose monomers

24
Q

How is starch stored by plants

A

Plants store starch as granules within cellular structures known as plastids. Which include chloroplasts.

25
Q

What does synthesizing starch allow a plant to do ?

A

Enables a plant to stockpile surplus glucose. Because glucose is a major cellular fuel, starch represents stored energy